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2005 - American Association For Public Opinion Association Words: 291 words || 
1. Noble, Iain., Lynn, Peter. and Smith, Patten . "A new and better method for sample designs with disproprtionate sampling" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association For Public Opinion Association, Fontainebleau Resort, Miami Beach, FL, <Not Available>. 2019-11-20 <>
Publication Type: Paper/Poster Proposal
Abstract: Survey designers often want to oversample specific sub-populations to improve precision and robustness. Nearly all existing methods in two stage sampling produce explicit problems, with specific weaknesses, because domains (sub-populations) targeted for over sampling usually cross-cut the clusters that form the PSUs.

This paper sets out a new method of sampling giving major gains over previous methods, in both effectiveness and efficiency, by simultaneously constraining three factors:

• - sample sizes within domains that cross-cut clusters
• - sample sizes within clusters
• - variation in selection probabilities, both within domains and overall.
This is achieved through use of a size measure which, instead of being a simple count of the second stage units, is a weighted sum of the counts of units in each domain within the cluster. This requires knowledge of the distribution of units over domains within each cluster, which is often possible when administrative data are available. These data can be exploited to produce samples with closely controlled composition of PSUs, that are more effective in boosting sub-samples than standard methods and have, through reduced design effects and increased effective sample size, greater cost efficiency than otherwise possible.

The paper comprises a description of the method, its underlying theoretical framework and a case study of its application in the design and implementation of the sample for a major longitudinal study of young people. The overall design was a conventional two-stage one with PPS, with schools being PSUs and individuals sampled from their registers. A critical objective was, however, boosting sample numbers for six ethnic minority groups. The paper sets out the advantages of the new method in this case, problems encountered and their solutions. The conclusion is that this method has substantial advantages over others and should be the default method for use in similar circumstances.

2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 28 pages || Words: 9777 words || 
2. Niemi, Richard., Portney, Kent. and King, David. "Sampling Young Adults: The Effects of Survey Mode and Sampling Method on Inferences About Political Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Internet surveys are rapidly becoming an accepted procedure in political science, yet questions about them remain. Using samples of college students aged 18-24 from four Internet surveys, three phone surveys, a Knowledge Networks web-enabled survey, and a mixed-method survey, we seek to understand the effects of Internet sampling of young adults on the assessment of voter registration, party identification, political ideology, and political engagement. We find that the Internet surveys showed significant differences with surveys conducted with other sampling methods. In particular, the Internet surveys attracted a considerably more activist sample of college students than the phone surveys. They also seemed to attract more ideologically extreme respondents. Less clear is whether they attracted strong partisans at the expense of Independent identifiers. While the Internet continues to provide an enticing and efficient mechanism for reaching young people, problems with opt-in panels suggest that serious attention needs to be given to improved ways of sampling.

2009 - ATE Annual Meeting Pages: 1 pages || Words: 424 words || 
3. Miller, Brian., Edgington, Bill., Miller, Melinda. and Rice, Marilyn. "Tweaking the Teacher Work Sample: Two Years and Counting on the Teacher Work Sample Journey" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ATE Annual Meeting, Hyatt Regency Dallas, Dallas, TX, Feb 15, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-20 <>
Publication Type: Single Paper Format
Abstract: Feedback-based modifications have defined and enriched our Teacher Work Sample assessment implementation. The detours and benefits of our TWS journey will be the focus of this session.

2010 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 4256 words || 
4. Cai, Tianji. "Investigation of ways for handling sampling weights under non-ignorable sampling design" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, Aug 13, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper investigated how sampling weights were implemented in regression model under an informative sampling design. Two classes of estimators were tested, one is based on design-based method, and the others are based on model based method. In particular, this study examined the estimators derived from the so-called sample distribution approach. A simulation was conducted to compare the relative performance of those estimators under non-ignorable sampling design.

2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
5. Erba, Joseph., Ternes, Brock., Bobkowski, Peter., Logan, Tara. and Liu, Yuchen. "Sampling Methods and Sample Populations in Mass Communication Studies: A 15-Year Census of Six Journals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, May 25, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Sampling procedures are crucial to the accuracy of research findings. Yet mass communication studies often rely on convenience samples of college students, thus threatening the external validity and generalizability of findings. The present study contributes a critical evaluation of sampling methods and sample populations in all quantitative mass communication studies (N = 1,178), both surveys and experiments, conducted in the United States and published over 15 years (2000-2014) in six leading peer-reviewed communication journals. Results revealed that the majority of quantitative studies (82.8%) relied on nonprobability sampling methods. Only 29.0% of the surveys used probability sampling methods. College student samples were used in 51.2% of quantitative studies. Experimental studies (79.0%) were more likely to use student samples than survey studies (28.2%). An overreliance on nonprobability sampling methods and, to a much lesser degree, college student samples, can cast doubt on the conclusions drawn from many mass communication studies.

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