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2008 - International Communication Association Words: 213 words || 
1. Elasmar, Michael. "Modeling the Schema of Muslim Populations with Respect to the U.S.-Led War on Terror: Media Images as Important Schema Building Blocks." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Following the terrorist attacks on the United States of 9/11/01, the U.S. Government declared a global war on terror and began enacting international communication campaigns to gain the support of global audiences for this war. Descriptive public opinion polls conducted overseas showed a generally negative attitude of Muslim populations abroad toward the U.S.-led war on terror. In order to truly determine what international communication strategies need to be adopted by the U.S. to gain the support of global audiences for the war on terror, researchers need to first understand the schema associated with this war as present in the minds of Muslim individuals living abroad. The data used in this paper is drawn from large-scale public opinion surveys conducted in seven countries with substantial Muslim populations. This paper uses theory-driven structural equation modeling techniques and presents a model of schema structure containing interrelated factors, including media exposure, that account for the variation of individuals’ likelihood to support the U.S.-led war on terror. By quantitatively illustrating the schema associated with the U.S.-led war on terror, this paper proposes an empirically-driven model of international public opinion formation that illustrates the role that news and entertainment media play in affecting such opinion. Implications are drawn for U.S. international political communication strategies.

2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 5927 words || 
2. Shim, Jae Woong. and Lim, Joon Soo. "The Effects of Typicality and Familiarity on Readers’ Memory for War-on-Iraq Coverage in a Korean Newspaper: An Experimental Test for Schema-Copy-Plus-Tag Model of A Schema Theory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-08-17 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of schemas in newspaper readers’ memory for Iraq-related news coverage. We assume that the readers’ memory for international news is constructed from prior experiences of similar stimuli mediated from the news media. Thus, a reader has acquired generic knowledge structure from prior media exposures and the structure will influence what he or she remember from the current international news. Based on the schema-copy-plus-tag (SC + T) model of a schema theory, we predicted that people would better remember atypical news stories than typical ones; however, after a delay, they will experience faster memory decay in the atypical news messages, resulting in higher memory errors. We tested the memorablility of atypical and typical news messages in a news story in an experiment design.

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