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2018 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 12024 words || 
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1. Shiff, Talia. "Evaluating the Case: Encounters of Schematic Accordance and Schematic Discordance in Asylum Adjudications" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center & Philadelphia Marriott, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 09, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1375540_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper offers a new conceptual framework for identifying the conditions that lead to shifts in frontline actors’ disposition from rule-bound bureaucrats to moral deliberators using the example of U.S. asylum. Interviews with asylum officers suggest that when confronted with case scenarios that do not squarely fit within known agency categories but do resonate with deeply embedded categories of worth, frontline actors no longer engage with their subjects as indifferent bureaucrats but rather critically reflect upon the categorization process itself. Contrary to mainstream depictions of bureaucratic systems as rule-bound, technocratic and impersonal, this analysis suggests that bureaucracies also generate conditions for moral deliberation with significant implications for how frontline actors define their gatekeeping roles and proceed to evaluate applicants.

2008 - International Communication Association Pages: 36 pages || Words: 9972 words || 
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2. Baden, Christian. "Combining Multiple Considerations: Voters’ Uses of Campaign Cues, Schematic Knowledge, and Heuristic Reasoning in the Dutch EU Constitutional Referendum" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 21, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p230156_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This article investigates how people used campaign cues to make sense of the Dutch EU constitutional referendum. Following their lines of heuristic reasoning, it examines how they integrated multiple cues into a coherent account. Based on a series of focus group interviews, the study traces the connections people drew between concepts in their own accounts, modelling considerations as paths across a semantic network. Analyzing the argument structures, the study identifies the schemata underlying people’s understandings, as well as the inferences relating these to the vote choice. It finds that people distilled little concrete information, but several general cues from the campaign. These were sufficient to render applicable various schemata, mainly in people’s prior understandings of European integration. People interpreted this knowledge in light of the referendum proposal, relying on various heuristics simultaneously. Framing the same information in different ways, they forged their considerations into a coherent narrative.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 198 words || 
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3. Simons, Ronald. and Burt, Callie. "Adverse Social Conditions, Hostile/Opportunistic Bias and Crime: An Integrated, Social Schematic Theory of Crime" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p426741_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Although differences are distorted by discrimination in the criminal justice system, evidence from a variety of self-report studies suggests that African American youths engage in more street crime and delinquency than their white counterparts. The present study employed arguments from social psychology and the cognitive sociology of Pierre Bourdieu to formulate a model of black offending that integrates concepts from a variety of criminological theories. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African Americans teens supported the study hypotheses. First, persistent exposure to race-related adverse social conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, and absence of collective efficacy increased commitment to cognitive schemas regarding trust of others, reputation, self-control, and the legitimacy of conventional norms. Second, these four schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a hostile, opportunistic knowledge structure that strongly predicts increases in crime. Finally, the effect of the various adverse environments on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this criminogenic knowledge structure. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of crime.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Michel, Christine., Pauen, Sabina. and Hoehl, Stefanie. "Examining the Influence of Low-Level Properties of Social Cues – Schematic Eyes Can Affect Infants‘ Object Learning" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p954800_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: From very early on in life, the direction of eye gaze acts as an important cue influencing infants’ attention, information processing and social learning processes. In a study by Hoehl, Wahl, and Pauen (2014), 4-month-old infants saw a person turning her eye gaze toward one object and away from another one. When both objects were presented again, infants looked longer to the previously not cued object than to the cued object. The cued object presumably was already more familiar to the infants while the not cued object was more novel to them and therefore attracted more attention.
However, it is unclear if the effects of eye gaze cues need the context of a complete face that identifies the cue as a social agent (Simion, Di Giorgio, Leo, & Bardi, 2011) or if low-level features like the high contrast of a dark pupil on a white sclera might be sufficient.
The current study therefore investigates the influence of schematic eyes without the context of a face on object processing in 4-month-olds using eye-tracking.
Adopting the paradigm of Hoehl et al. (2014), 21 infants (10 female, mean age: 4 months, 12 days) saw a video of schematic eyes first looking to the front with colorful objects to either side. The pupil then turned to one side thereby cueing one object and looking away from the other one. Both objects were then presented again for 10 seconds in a test phase and relative looking times to the previously cued and the not cued object were measured. In half of the trials the objects switched their position in the test phase (see Figure 1 for examples of trials).
A 2x2 repeated-measures ANOVA with within-subject factors cue (cued vs. not cued) and position (objects switching position vs. not switching position) was conducted. Only a significant main effect of cue was found (F(1,20)=12.299, p=0.002, partial ƞ²=0.381) with longer relative looking times to previously not cued objects (M=0.46) compared to cued objects (M=0.32).
The movement of a black pupil on a white background affected infants’ object processing in a similar way as natural eyes did within the context of a complete face.
It might be possible that neurons in the superior temporal sulcus, that were found to be sensitive to eye gaze direction in the macaque and that are part of a proposed Direction of Attention Detector (Perrett & Emery, 1994; Perrett, Hietanen, Oram, & Benson, 1992) are responsible for this kind of a cueing effect elicited only by eye gaze.
To further test if the specific contrast of a black pupil on a white sclera, which is distinctive for eyes, is crucial, data collection of a control study with a reversed black and white contrast is under way.

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