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2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 4895 words || 
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1. Vermeulen, Ivar. and Bruggeman, Jeroen. "In Search of a Niche: Differentiation Among Internet Search Engines, 1993-2000" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 20, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p300523_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Search engines are the principal parties mediating information flows between online information providers and Internet users worldwide. As a result, search engines have an increasing impact on the distribution of, e.g., commercial, political, and health-related information. Currently, Google dominates the search engine industry, and scholars have expressed concerns regarding its all-too-powerful position as “gatekeeper” of the Web. A more differentiated search engine industry would be preferable, as societal influence would then be distributed over more actors. To explore circumstances that could facilitate more differentiation, this study reviews the competitive dynamics in the search engine industry from its inception, in 1993, to 2000. It particularly focuses on the period 1996-2000, which showed a sudden inflow of new, mostly specialized, search engines. We propose organization ecology, a theoretical approach neighbouring evolutionary economics, as a possible explanation for the observed market dynamics. Organization ecology argues that in concentrated markets, generalists are forced to focus on the market core, which inevitably goes at the cost of their more peripheral interests. This, in turn, creates opportunities for new firms to enter the market. To test this theory, we analyzed micro- and macro-level competitive processes in a population of 137 international search engines, measured for each quarter year, over seven years. Results suggest that the inflow of new search engines indeed coincided with (1) intensified competition between large generalists (e.g. Altavista, Infoseek, Hotbot), and (2) declining competitive pressure in the market periphery. As a result, conditions for new search engines to enter the market improved.

2012 - Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 44th Annual Convention Words: 30 words || 
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2. Lenkart, Joseph. "Searching in the Dark: Give Us Your True Holdings. Online Resources for Verifying, Searching, and Locating Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Materials" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 44th Annual Convention, New Orleans Marriott, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p562056_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The paper will focus on the proliferation of online resources for locating materials at North American and European institutions. Particularly, the paper will address the need for training methodologies.

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 189 words || 
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3. Totten, Christopher. "Strip Searches of Inmates and Students: Confusion or Clarity in the “Special Needs” Search area?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p586389_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Since the 1980s, the United States Supreme Court has continued to refine the Fourth Amendment, “special needs” search doctrine. However, in the last several years, the Court has decided two landmark cases under this doctrine involving “strip searches” of individuals --- one in the correctional setting (Florence v. Burlington, 2012) and one in the school setting (Safford v. Redding, 2009). While Safford establishes that a school official may conduct a strip search of a student only after forming particularized, reasonable suspicion that the student is hiding certain contraband (i.e., drugs, weapons) underneath his clothing, Florence holds that correctional officers at a jail may now strip search an arrestee, including a person arrested for a minor, non-violent crime, without such reasonable suspicion. Arguably, in the wake of these landmark decisions, school officials will now need to exercise more discretional decision-making related to strip searches than correctional officers, who often receive more training and have more experience with such searches than school officials. This presentation examines the rationales and policy implications for these different case holdings while also exploring their interpretation in the lower courts.

2012 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 5158 words || 
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4. Gesell, Katharina. and Karnowski, Veronika. "The Effects of Semantic and Visualized Search Applications on Search Strategy and Efficiency" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton Phoenix Downtown, Phoenix, AZ, May 24, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p555567_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Understanding the process of searching and navigating on the web is – despite being extensively researched for more than one decade already – of ever increasing importance in our society. 78.2% of all adults in the US and 79.9% of all adults in Germany are online on a daily basis and searching for information is one of the most prominent activities when being online.
Search engines are the gatekeepers in this process, leading users’ – more or less successfully – to the content they are looking for. Nowadays there are several technological approaches trying to improve search engines and facilitate the search process for the single user. In our study we will focus on two of these approaches and their influence on search strategies and efficiency.

2006 - International Communication Association Pages: 35 pages || Words: 8535 words || 
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5. Jeong, Yongick. and Mahmood, Reaz. "How Different Are Your Search Terms from Mine? Political, Socio-Economic, and Cultural Approaches to Understanding Worldwide Internet Search Queries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Dresden International Congress Centre, Dresden, Germany, Online <PDF>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p93227_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Using quantitative content analysis, this study examines Internet search term patterns from various countries included on Google Zeitgeist in the display of its top ten lists. The lists of the most popular search terms from the countries were examined within the context of political differences (free, partially free, and not free), socioeconomic differences (high SES, medium SES, and low SES), and cultural differences (masculine country, mixed/neutral country, and feminine country, based on the cultural gender index of Hofstede).

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