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2013 - 37th Annual National Council for Black Studies Words: 210 words || 
1. Smith, YharNahKeeShah. "Do You See What I See: Collegiate Males Representations in Media" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 37th Annual National Council for Black Studies, The Westin Hotel - Downtown, Indianapolis, ID, Mar 13, 2013 <Not Available>. 2020-01-25 <>
Publication Type: Panelist Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: As an African-American female in America, I have always been interested in how my race and culture was represented in the media, especially growing up in a predominately White neighborhood and attending predominately White schools. I often had to deal with those around me making assumptions about me based on what they saw on television and read in the newspapers. For over sixty years, television has been in the homes of Americans giving them insights and glimpses into the lives of others and creating belief systems based on visual media. As visual media increased with major motion pictures with sound, documentaries, music videos, and internet, people are making depictions more and more accessible to the masses. With the general belief that African-American men do not succeed in college as well as other populations, I have developed an interest in the depictions of collegiate males in visual media. These visual media images can easily be used as pedagogy. Giroux and Simon state that pedagogy is an attempt to influence knowledge and identities in society (1989). This presentation will begin to analyze some of the basic elements of Black collegiate males in visual media because visual media representations are often substituted as reality (Fiske, 2003).

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7199 words || 
2. Leidner, Robin. "To See or Not to See: Race and Theatrical Casting" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/BINARY>. 2020-01-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In nontraditional casting, actors fill roles in which they differ from the character they play, most often by race. This practice stretches norms of representation and calls on audiences to suspend their ordinary assumptions about what bodily characteristics convey. Drawing on theater professionals' experiences with and opinions about non-traditional casting based on race or ethnicity, this paper analyzes what such casting decisions reveal about contextual variability in the meanings attached to physical signifiers of race.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 482 words || 
3. Pickron, Charisse., Fava, Eswen. and Scott, Lisa. "Do You See What Eye See? The Influence of Perceptual Tuning on Eye Gaze Following and Object Processing During Infancy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2020-01-25 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Background and Aims: Infants learn that shifts in eye gaze can communicate social cues of attention and intent and when adults visually cue an object infants allocate greater attention to previously uncued or novel objects (e.g., Hoehl et al., 2013; Reid & Striano, 2005; Wahl et al., 2012). Additionally, infants’ attention to cued objects can increase or decrease based on individual familiarity (e.g., primary caregiver) and affect (e.g., fear) of the face (Gredebäck et al., 2010; Hoehl, Wahl et al., 2012; Hoehl, Wiese, & Striano, 2008). At the same time that infants are learning to allocate attention based on eye-gaze, they are also developing perceptual face processing biases. For example, younger infants (~ 6 months) equally differentiate faces within both familiar and unfamiliar groups (e.g., other races), whereas older infants (~9 months) have honed their perceptual skill set to differentiate people within familiar groups (e.g., own race) better than people within unfamiliar groups (Kelly et al., 2007; 2009; Vogel, Monesson, & Scott, 2012). The present study examined whether early face processing biases for race and gender either separately or collectively increased or decreased infants’ attention to and learning about cued and uncued objects.

Method: Eighteen 5- (Mage = 160.39 days, 13 females) and seventeen 10- (Mage = 307 days, 10 females) month-old infants completed an eye-tracking task in which they viewed videos of adults, who varied by race and gender, cue one of two objects through shifts in eye gaze. After objects appeared with each face, they were presented in a preferential looking task. Fixation duration to the cued and uncued objects was recorded using an eye-tracker (EyeLink 1000 Arm Mount configuration).

Results: Five-month-olds showed a significant difference in looking to the uncued versus cued object when the cueing face was female and a marginal difference when the cueing face was male (Difference between Uncued and Cued shown in Figure 1). Ten-month-olds fixated the uncued object longer when the cue face was female (regardless of race), own-race (regardless of gender) (Figure 1). Learning appears to be greatest and least variable when the gaze cue comes from a female own-race face (Figure 2). For 10-month-olds no differences in looking were found when the cue face was male, other-race, or specifically male other-race or male own-race.

Conclusion: Results suggest that learning from a face cueing attention to an object between 5 and 10 months is influenced by both the race and gender of the cuing face. Five-month-old and 10-month old infants are particularly influenced by face gender, however, whereas 5-month-old infants appear to learning from both male and female faces, 10-month-old infants only learn from female faces and particularly own-race female faces. These results provide insight into how early experiences with particular groups influence infants’ processing of social communication cues and suggest that with age infants are better able to retrieve/use social gaze cues from female own-race faces.

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 284 words || 
4. Armstrong, Sarah. "Seeing and Seeing as: Building a Politics of Vision and Visibility in Criminology" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, <Not Available>. 2020-01-25 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: Like all researchers, criminologists are engaged in a process of making things visible. That is, we try to get others to see something for the first time, or to see it in a new light, or to see it the 'right' way, countering fallacies and misrepresentations with good evidence. But we work in a particularly fraught field, perhaps akin to welfare and poverty studies, because particular, and particularly domineering, imagery is so well established, analysed and embedded that it colonises political and popular imaginations. This paper argues that one task of a visual criminology ought to be a project of stirring imagination, of freeing up our mind's eye in a way that allows new politics of crime and punishment to emerge. It follows Levitas's utopian method, in which the first step of getting somewhere new is to excavate where we already stand, digging into the premises that shape what we take for granted, such as prison as permanent, or crime as a phenomenon of the urban street. The larger part of the paper draws on various object theories in ANT and STS to explore how we might engage prison as a topic of research and critique without reproducing and carrying forward certain colonising tropes of representation. This involves acts of seeing, of literally making visible aspects of punishment which are presently invisible, which might in turn gain political efficacy through acts of 'seeing as', of conceptualising prison's many guises and roles in terms of new imagery (or counter imagery, Schept, 2014). While the paper will offer some familiar and alternative images of the prison, these are offered tentatively to promote the idea of the visual creating possibilities for a renewed politics in criminology generally.

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