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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Parady, Valerie. and Corwyn, Robert. "Does a mother’s self-esteem predict her child’s self-esteem?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p962408_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A new question that researchers are starting to ask is how certain positive emotions are transferred between generations. It is noted, however, that little research has been conducted in order to investigate the influence that parents have on their children’s self-esteem (Hoy, Suldo, Mendez, 2012). Potentially positive emotions like self-esteem have been a subject of intense research for decades, but the intergenerational transmission of self-esteem has rarely been a research topic. The only study found that looked at this question (Donnelly, Renk, Sims, Mcguire, 2010) investigated the influence of mothers’ self-esteem on the self-esteem of their college-aged children. The study found that mothers’ self-esteem predicted her child’s self-esteem. However, this data was collected from only one university. In our study we were able to look at a larger, more representative sample.
Extraneous variables controlled for included marital status which has been linked to levels of self-esteem (Baldwin, Hoffmann, 2002: Baker, Ben-Ami, 2011). Stressful life events such as divorce can affect a child’s stress level as well. These stressful life events can also affect their levels of depression (Baker, Ebn-Ami, 2011: Hayes, Harris, Carver, 2004), which is also linked to self-esteem (Hayes, Harris, Carver, 2004). Researchers have also concluded that family income and government assistance effected the child’s self-esteem (Wiltfang, Scarbecz, 1990). We were able to look at each of the variables and conclude that mothers’ self-esteem, depression and marital status where all significant predictors a child’s self-esteem.
Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY). We merged data from the Mothers (NLSY 79) and of their children (NLSY79 Child/Young Adult). A sample of 829 mothers (22.1% Hispanic, 26.2% Black, and 51.7% Non-Hispanic and non-blacks) were given the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale in 2006 and their adolescent children were also given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 2006.
After controlling for net family income, maternal depression (CESD), and marital status (single, living with a partner) we found that the mother’s self-esteem was a significant predictor of the child’s self-esteem. Marital status was a significant predictor of adolescent self-esteem as well. Net family income and maternal depression did not have an independent effect on adolescent self-esteem.
This study and the study by Donnelly and colleagues (2010), suggest that the self-esteem of mothers can have an important influence on the self-esteem of their children. It would be especially informative to investigate the pathways in which maternal self-esteem has an influence on child self-esteem (i.e. mediators) as well as potential moderators of this relationship.

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 713 words || 
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2. Iyengar, Radhika. "How much do teacher networks and collaborative work improve teachers’ self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-perception? A Case study from India’s STIR’s program." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p975794_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The objective of the study:
The study is situated in Delhi, India. All teachers are part of the STIR network (http://www.stireducation.org), which is a non-profit organization aiming to support teachers and to catalyze surrounding ecosystem of partners to support and sustain this movement. STIR brings teachers together and creates network of support to exchange innovative ideas. The program believes in “teacher led change” that empowers the teachers to start believing in themselves enabling them to suggest low-cost classroom based solutions to improve education quality. The specific research questions are –what is the impact of teacher networks on individual efficacy, self-esteem and self-perception. Second, what is the impact of “mindset training” on the above given teacher attributes.

Research Question:
• What program, teacher or school related factors that have the potential to influence teacher self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-perception?

Outcomes of interest:
The main outcomes that the study will be tracking are 1. Teacher Self-Efficacy 2. Self-esteem, 3. Self-perception.

Analytical Methods:
This is a mixed methods study. It uses both qualitative and quantitative data to conduct the analysis. The study design is that of a Randomized Control Trial. The treatment group will be network participants and the control group will consists of those who attended the initial search conference but did not participate in the network.

Data Sources:
The qualitative data is in the form of interviews, video and photo transcriptions. The quantitative data is in the form of surveys, the tools of which will be designed specifically to address the research question pertaining to this study. The qualitative data will be thematically coded using NVIVO software. The quantitative data is be analyzed using Ordinary Least Square Method using STATA as the software package. Both qualitative and quantitative data will be collected at baseline, midline and endline.

Results:
Preliminary analysis of baseline and midline survey data shows that Teachers feel high levels of efficacy with means between 1.5 and 1.6 at baseline and midline in response to the following five questions (scale is 1 to 5 with 1 meaning strong agreement and 5 meaning strong disagreement). This implies that teachers who participate in STIR feel efficacious. At the same time, teachers also believe that other factors are important as shown by means between 2.2 and 2.1 at baseline and midline in response to the following four questions (scale is 1 to 5 with 1 meaning strong agreement and 5 meaning strong disagreement). One surprising result is that self-perception about how good one is as a teacher goes down significantly from baseline to midline 4.17 to 3.97 (with 1 being low and 5 being high self perception after taking care of reverse coding). Teachers are also intrinsically motivated at baseline and midline with means of 1.4 at both points of time on the average of the following items asking why they are teaching (1=strongly agree and 5=strongly disagree).
The baseline qualitative interview data suggests that the respondents feel that the most important aspects of STIR are suggesting and implementing micro-innovations (24% references). Building networks (16%) and collaboration among teachers (19%) also come up multiple times. According to the respondents, the major gaps that STIR could address include improvement in quality education (57%), quality of teaching (19%) and improvement in teacher motivation (19%).


Significance of the study in the field of comparative or international education:
The study is useful in many ways. Firstly, this study tests the growth mind-set theory in a developing country context. Although, multiple studies have been done in the US and other countries on the impact on educational outcomes using growth-mind set approach. This study helps to test the same hypothesis in India. Secondly, one of the unique aspects of STIR is to build teacher networks to facilitate sharing ideas. This study will be able to assess the various ways in which networks of teachers could make a difference in their classroom teaching practices. Thirdly, developing an Indian contextualized measure of teacher self-perception, self-efficacy and self-esteem is an achievement in its own kind. Fourth, the study attempts to understand the types of non-monetary support structures that teachers might need to become better educators in a developing country context. Therefore this study will be able to develop measures, tests theories for the first time in a developing country set-up. This will help to share the lesson learnt with other developing countries as well.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
Info
3. Harris, Michelle., Trzesniewski, Kali. and Donnellan, M.. "Assessing Global Self-Esteem across the Life span: Introducing the Life Span Self-Esteem Scale" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p960322_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Copious amounts of past research point to global self-esteem as important for concurrent and long term mental and physical health. While longitudinal studies on self-esteem have increased in the recent years, the conclusions that can be made about self-esteem over time are limited because existing global self-esteem scales vary the items across developmental periods (e.g., Self-Perception Profile for Children, SPPC, or Adolescents; Harter, 1985; 1988) or are only validated for certain ages (e.g., Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; RSE for use with adolescent and adult samples). In addition, global self-esteem scales are not available for children younger than eight, despite the likelihood that self-esteem begins to develop earlier in life (but, see March, Craven, & Debus, 1991). These limitations in self-esteem measurement have held back research on the development of self-esteem across the life span. A single scale validated for a wide-range of individuals is needed to help research on the development of self-esteem move forward.
Method. Recruitment was targeted to 11 age-stratified subsamples with 103 to 254 participants in each of the following age groups: 5-7, 8-13, 14-17, 18-24, 25-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Children ages 5 to 13 completed surveys in their school classroom with the facilitation of trained research assistants. Participants ages 14 to 89 completed surveys online. Six items for the LSE were adapted from the SPPC (Harter, 1985), and four new items were created to result in a total of 10 items (see Table 1). Participants of all ages responded using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (really sad) to 5 (really happy), which were illustrated with smiley faces. Cronbach’s alphas were acceptable at all ages (> .84 for each age group). To validate the scale, correlates of self-esteem were measured by target gender, target-reported attachment security and the Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale (SISE; Robins, Hendin, & Trzesniewski, 2001) at all ages. In addition, three well-established self-esteem measures (e.g., RSE), personality, depression, and narcissism were assessed across adulthood.
Results. The total LSE score was computed by taking the average of the 10 items. We replicated past literature that shows self-esteem is high in childhood, drops in adolescence, and rises and becomes stable in adulthood. However, we did not find a striking decline in old age, as has been found in past research. Across the sample, LSE was not correlated with gender, but was strongly related to the three well-established self-esteem measures. The LSE was also related to attachment security and SISE, and this relation was not moderated by age (see Table 2). Table 2 also shows consistent correlations across adult subsamples with personality traits, depression, and narcissistic admiration. Overall, there is strong evidence for internal consistency, convergent validity, and divergent validity of the LSE across the life span. Findings also show that young children can reliably and validly self-report their global self-esteem.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
Info
4. Fassnacht, Gregory., Osofsky, Joy., Osofsky, Howard. and Weems, Carl. "Self Esteem, Disaster Exposure, and Psychological Symptoms among Disaster-Exposed Youth: Does Self Esteem act as a Buffer?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p956569_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that disaster exposure can negatively affect youth health and mental health (e.g., Hansel, Osofsky, Osofsky, & Friedrich, 2013). However, there is considerable variation in the levels of psychological distress, including symptoms of PTSD, that are experienced among disaster exposed youth (e.g., Masten, & Osofsky, 2010). One factor that may predict variation in the effects of exposure is self-esteem. This poster presentation will provide data testing a theoretical model which predicts that self-esteem may buffer individuals against some of the negative effects of exposure to disaster, but that the buffering effect may vary by developmental level or gender of the youth. We predicted that self-esteem levels moderate the relationship between natural disaster exposures (hurricane and oil) and post traumatic symptoms (PTS).
To test the hypothesis, a sample of 5,055 children and adolescents in grades 4-12 living a region affected by Hurricane Katrina, the Gulf Oil Spill and other intervening hurricanes were assessed. Students were evaluated for PTSD symptoms, hurricane exposure, ongoing life-stressors and self-esteem using well validated measures. Youth were aged 7-18 years (M age = 13.38 years) with 52% reporting female gender, 47% male, and 1% with unreported gender. Youth reported their ethnicities as 58% white, 19% African American, 10% mixed, 5% Hispanic, 3% American Indian, 2% Asian, 2% other, and 1% unreported.

Regression analyses were conducted in order to test the hypotheses that self-esteem levels moderate the relationship between natural disaster exposures (hurricane and oil) and post traumatic symptoms (PTS). PTS was entered as the dependent variable, and hurricane exposure with self-esteem were entered as predictors, with the variables age, ethnicity, gender, and oil exposure entered as covariates. In Table 1, results indicate that self-esteem interacts with hurricane exposure as indicted by the significant interaction term. In addition, post-hoc probing of the interaction at high and low levels of self-esteem (see Holmbeck, 2002), indicates that while exposure is predictive of PTS symptoms across all levels of self-esteem, among those with low self-esteem hurricane exposure has a stronger effect on PTS levels (slope = 6.71), than among those with higher levels of self-esteem (slope= 3.48). Results from Table 2 indicate that self-esteem also interacted with oil exposure in the prediction of PTS symptoms as indicated by the significant interaction term. In addition, post-hoc probing of the interaction at high and low levels of self-esteem indicates that while exposure is predictive of PTS symptoms across all levels of self-esteem, among those with low self-esteem oil exposure has a stronger effect on PTS levels (slope = 6.73), than among those with higher levels of self-esteem (slope= 3.68).
The results of this study provide data showing that self-esteem may buffer the effects of disaster exposure on youth. Additional analyses to be presented at the meeting will test if findings vary by age of the child and gender.

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 192 words || 
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5. Grigoryeva, Maria. and Matsueda, Ross. "Self-esteem, Self-Identity, and Codes of Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1032159_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The empirical gaps caused by both the paucity of recent work on self-esteem, and the lack of quantitative studies that examine processes of identity and self-assessment in at-risk samples have left important gaps in our understanding of the links between social context, self-esteem and identity, and behavior. The present paper attempts to fill these gaps, and draws on the work of Elijah Anderson (1999) to address the following questions: What are the sources of self-esteem for children who are live in neighborhoods dominated by codes of violence? How does one’s social background, and the opportunities it affords, influence one’s sense of self—such as which identities and roles are deemed most important, or the extent to which the performance of certain roles results in personal esteem and efficacy? To what extent are children with multiple opportunities for gaining self esteem able to “code switch”—enact roles from both the conventional world and the world dominated by violence and crime? And finally, is self-esteem related to decreases in violent behavior for at-risk youth? Data from the Denver Youth Survey and structural equation models are used to shed light on these issues.

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