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2004 - The Law and Society Association Words: 310 words || 
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1. Stemen, Don. "Sentencing Policy Innovation in the United States, 1975-2002: The Adoption of Determinate Sentencing and Sentencing Guidelines" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, May 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p116966_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The indeterminate sentencing structures that dominated criminal justice systems in the United States through the 1970s fragmented over the last three decades, replaced by patchworks of determinate and structured sentencing, mandatory sentencing, and truth-in-sentencing laws. Scholars have examined these recent state-level reforms in an effort to understand their philosophical underpinnings and their impact on the criminal justice system. Yet, there remains a lack of comparative work systematically analyzing the factors that determine why certain states have adopted particular sentencing laws while others have not. This paper assesses those factors that determine the timing of the enactment and content of two sentencing laws adopted across the states between 1975 and 2002: determinate sentencing and sentencing guidelines.

Explaining those factors that determine variation in the adoption and content of policies across jurisdictions continues to challenge policy innovation scholars in political science, sociology, and economics. However, while policy innovation studies have considered innovation across a wide range of policy areas, few have focused on the adoption of criminal justice policies. Using event history analysis, this paper tests the influence of several socioeconomic, political, and cultural factors on the propensity to enact legislation, explains why some states chose to enact determinate sentencing or sentencing guidelines legislation while others did not, and examines what determines the content of that legislation. These factors will include variables identified by scholars as influencing the adoption of criminal justice policies specifically and variables identified by policy innovation scholars as determining the adoption of policies generally. While scholars continue to debate the philosophical underpinnings and effects of recent sentencing reforms, determining those state-level factors driving the initial adoption and content of particular sentencing policies is critical to understanding the fragmentation in the American approach to punishment in an era of rapid policy change and harsh approaches to sentencing.

2015 - Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting Words: 192 words || 
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2. Velazquez, Marisela. "Sentencers’ attitudes toward women in the criminal justice system: Explanations for sentencing treatment disparities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hyatt Regency Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, Apr 01, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p982470_index.html>
Publication Type: Research-in-progress presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite the significant increases in the number of women going to prison in the last twenty years, women's involvement in crime remains generally non-serious and non-violent. This might suggest that their treatment by sentencers has become more punitive in spite of claims that the justice system treats women leniently and resorts to the use of custody as a 'last resort' (Hough et al,. 2003). Even more noteworthy is the disparity in prisoner rates between Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (405.4 versus 16.5 per 100,000 pop.) (ABS, 2013).

Historically, White women are claimed to be treated leniently by the courts while minority women are treated harshly (Heidensohn, 1985; Chesney-Lind & Bowker, 1978; Cameron, 1964). However, recent research in Australia on gender and Indigenous sentencing disparities contradicts these historical arguments based on cases which go to the higher courts (Jeffries & Bond, 2013).

This paper uses the focal concerns perspective to understand and interpret why Indigenous women may be treated leniently in the higher courts. Based on semi-structured interviews with judges, narrative analysis of sentencing transcripts, and observations in courtrooms, I qualitatively examine the explanations sentencers give for their decision-making when sentencing Indigenous and non-Indigenous women.

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 102 words || 
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3. Owen, Barbara. "Gendering Sentence Reform: The Situation of Women Serving Life and Other Long Term Sentences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1032859_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: This presentation focuses on the situation of women serving life and other long prison terms. Women make up less than 4% of the almost 160,000 persons serving life terms in the United States with little attention to their pathways to life in prison. Policy and operational practice typically do not include gendered experiences in their sentencing process and, equally important, such context is often ignored in their parole process. This presentation examines facts that ground any discussion of reform, including the nature of women’s involvement in these “life-crimes,” and the system’s gender-neutral response that impedes the delivery of a just sanction.

2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 189 words || 
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4. Harmon, Mark. and Boppre, Breanna. "Racialized Sentencing: The Disproportionate Effects of Sentencing Reforms on People of Color" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Nov 16, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1148988_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Incarceration rates in the United States have increased by over 500% during the last 40 years. While this rise in imprisonment has impacted both men and women, as well as all racial groups, some subgroups have experienced higher burdens of this rise than other. Crime rates alone represent a relatively modest portion of the explanation in the rise. Some scholars contend the increase is likely due to changes in the policies and practices of the “War on Crime” movement. These policies included a series of state-level sentencing reforms that focused on limiting judicial discretion, creating uniformity within similarly situated crimes, increasing length of time-served and/or reducing discretionary parole decisions. Our paper explores the interconnection between rising racial disparities in both male and female imprisonment and the adoption of sentencing reforms. The results of prior research have been far from conclusive on the impacts of these reforms, suggesting that a nuanced exploration is needed. We will specifically assess the impact of sentencing guidelines (both voluntary and presumptive) and determinate sentencing as well as truth in sentencing and three strikes laws at the state-level and over time (1970s to early 2010s).

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 177 words || 
Info
5. Painter-Davis, Noah. "Race/Ethnicity Gender Gaps in Sentencing Overtime: Have Sentencing Policy Structures Disadvantaged Minority Women" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1270738_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Two longstanding findings in the sentencing literature are that the (1) female advantage of greater leniency at sentencing persists across racial/ethnic groups and (2) that racial disparities in sentencing are pronounced among men but muted among women. However, researchers have argued that the leniency afforded to minority women offenders may be a thing of the past and that sentencing policies, including sentencing guidelines and mandatory minimums, may have operated to increase punishment disadvantages among minority women. Notably, researchers also contend that there now may be a "double-disadvantage" whereby racial/ethnic disparities in sentencing are wider among women than men. Using longitudinal sentencing data from Pennsylvania (1995-2015) the current study examines how race/ethnic-gender gaps in sentencing (Black Male-Black Female, White Male-White Female, Latino Male-Latino Female) have changed overtime and whether minority women have been uniquely disadvantaged by sentencing policies. The study disaggregates the analyses by offense type to examine the hypothesis that minority women are particularly disadvantaged for drug offenses. Results indicate that though sentencing policies have increased racial/ethnic disparities in sentencing, these disparities are largely limited to men.

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