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2013 - 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 729 words || 
1. Atalmis, Erkan. and Yilmaz, Mustafa. "Do Educational centers offering Supplemental Education in Turkey increases the achievement gap among students from lower SES and higher-SES?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Mar 10, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-12-07 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Introduction
Supplementary education is additional instruction occurring outside of formal school time, and is designed to increase students’ academic performance on high-stakes exams for exclusive secondary and post-secondary programs. Supplementary education is widespread in Japan, South Korea, the US and Egypt, just as with Turkey, where there are two highly competitive exams: one for high school and the other for university. Students from top high schools can place in a limited number of university programs in Turkey. Tansel and Bircan (2006) reported that 21.5 percent of examinees were placed in different program at all Turkish universities in 2003. Therefore, students undertaking these special courses, designed to teach specifically to these types of exams, increase the demand for this type of extracurricular instruction, consequently increasing the occurrence of educational centers in Turkey, called “dersane”.
Educational centers are widespread across the country because they meet demands for placement within these desirable but minimally available slots. The number of these centers is still rapidly increasing, as in 1984, 174 centers enrolled nearly 100,000 students, to 1730 centers in 2000 serving 50,000 students, to 2011 seeing more than 4000 centers with 1.2 million students ( Ministry of Turkey, 2006; Ministry of Turkey, 2007, Ministry of National Education, 2011). Hence ‘supply & demand’ providing huge increases among the numbers of the centers opening, charging exorbitant amounts for their services, and becoming a socioeconomic force with which to be dealt in Turkish society, and that of other nations.
Each center charges significant tuition for each student annually (Tansel& Bircan, 2006), thus parents who cannot afford to send their children or who can only afford only one year of tuition, such as those from low socioeconomic status (SES), are a big part of the decreasing educational equal opportunity among students from different SES backgrounds (Unal et al, 2010; Tansel& Bircan, 2006). According to findings of PISA 2009, this has established Turkey among the OECD countries as having the largest variation between low and high socio-economic groups in terms of students’ performances in math, science, and reading (OECD, 2010).
Data was collected by convenient sampling from 1095 Turkish 7th grade students from 16 different schools located in both urban and rural areas.
Research Questions and Empirical Strategy
This study examines two main research questions: Do students from highest SES and lowest SES show significantly difference to take courses from these centers? Do students with lower performance take the course from the center more significant than the ones with higher performance? In order to answer these questions, a logistic regression was conducted due to the categorical variables inherent within the population studied. In the current study, the dependent variable is whether students go to these centers, while independent variables are SES, school location (scloc, as in urban versus rural), the number of sibling a student may have(nos), parents highest degree of education completed (hparent), internet accessibility (ic), owning versus renting homes (owh) and students’ academic performance their previous year (6th grade). To do these analyses, STATA and Microsoft Excel are used.

Primary Results
Logistic regression model was statistically significant (R2=0.24; p<0.0001), showing for the significant effect of all independent variables of SES enrolling in, and completing, supplementary coursework, except for internet courses. Among SES variables, Sloc and hparent have so far shown the biggest effects for determining if students were taking supplementary courses (βodds-ratio: 1.58 with 95% confidence interval of [1.10, 2.26]; βodds-ratio: 1.53 with 95% confidence interval of [1.32, 1.77], respectively). Students in urban schools are 1.6 times more likely to take supplementary education than students in rural schools, as were students with higher educated parents. In addition, students’ previous year math scores affect significantly affected their decision to take supplementary education, which was the biggest effect among all independent variables (βodds-ratio: 1.99 with 95% confidence interval of [1.71, 2.32]). This means that students with higher math performance in 6th grade are twice as likely to take supplementary education as ones with lower math performance in Turkey. In other words, more successful students go to these educational centers for supplementary education. In summary, students less in need of additional instruction are significantly more likely to receive that instruction, and thereby augment their opportunity for placement in the exclusive and most promising schools and programs, thereby showing that these centers increase the achievement gap between higher-SES and lower-SES students.

2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 21 pages || Words: 6044 words || 
2. Ward, Aaryn. "A Person Centered Approach to Understanding the Outcomes of Low-SES Students in High-SES Schools" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-07 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines three major educational outcomes (high school diploma, two year college enrollment, and four year college enrollment) for low SES high school students who attended high SES schools. Using a person-centered method with the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002, I determine which factors are most influential for each of the outcomes. Two years after high school graduation, a majority of respondents had enrolled in four year postsecondary institutions. The most influential variables that emerged for four-year postsecondary enrollment were parental expectations for future education, high school involvement in extra-curricular activities, and positive peer networks.

2010 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 5253 words || 
3. Zhang, Qian. and Wang, Jin. "Individual SES, Community SES and Self-Rated Health in Urban China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, Aug 13, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-07 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The study aims to examining how individual level SES and community level SES affect self-rated health of people older than 15 years in urban China. The study employs data from China Family Panel Survey Pilot (CFPS-P, 2008) to test the associations between individual SES and community SES and self-rated health in urban areas of China. The analysis finds that education has positive effects on self-rated health while income has no significant effects without adjusting for community SES. Both education and income are positively related to self-rated health after controlling community SES. The influence of income on self-rated health is stronger among people with lower level education than those with higher level education adjusting for community SES. Higher community SES is significantly related to worse self-rated health. The study suggests further research orient to explore the association between community characteristics and residents’ health through different aspects of community characteristics based on the specialties in China and continue to investigate the association between individual SES and health outcome under the context of community.

2006 - American Society of Criminology (ASC) Words: 92 words || 
4. Gault, Martha. "Gender, SES, and Delinquency: Examining the Interaction Between SES and Gender in Youth" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology (ASC), <Not Available>. 2019-12-07 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health,
I examine female delinquency, male delinquency, and the gender gap, and then
separate the analyses into SES groups. I introduced mechanisms such as
delinquent peers, protective factors, and different types of attachment to
explain the effect of gender on delinquency to each subgroup and analyzed their
similarities and differences. The results suggest that while many mechanisms
that affect delinquency are similar for boys and girls, there are some class
differences. In addition, the size of the gender gap varies by SES groups in
some categories of delinquency.

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 747 words || 
5. Kim, Taehan. "Social Class and the Development of Internal Political Efficacy: A Comparison between Low-SES Adolescents and High-SES Adolescents in 34 Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-12-07 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Political efficacy developed during adolescence has a significant impact upon one’s political life. Research has found numerous personal and contextual resources conducive to political efficacy development (Verba et al., 1995; Levine, 2007; Flanagan & Wray-Lake, 2011). However, the disproportionate distribution of these resources has differential effects on the development of political efficacy among adolescents from different social and cultural backgrounds. Advocates of democratic citizenship education contend that unequal opportunities for political development in adolescence exacerbate disparities in civic engagement between different social classes (Flanagan & Levine, 2010). Therefore, much attention has been paid to the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on shaping and expediting political efficacy. However, comparative studies on SES, which represents social class, as a social condition affecting the political development process rather than as a factor within the process are rare.
Contemporary political socialization theory emphasizes that political development occurs at the micro (e.g., family, school) and macro levels (e.g., national context) and calls for studies that simultaneously consider multilevel contexts (Flanagan et al., 2011; Sapiro, 2004). In response to this need for research, this study explored the relationship of internal political efficacy, which refers to the belief that one has the necessary abilities to understand and participate in politics, to personal (gender, civic knowledge, civic participation experience at school, civic participation experience outside of school) and micro contextual factors (parents’ political interest, public issue discussion with parents, openness in classroom discussions, students’ influence on decisions about school, student-teacher relations) among adolescents in different SES groups as macro context. To gain a deeper understanding of differences (or similarities) in the effect of SES on this relationship, I compared the relationship among disadvantaged adolescents with that among their advantaged peers in diverse national contexts.
Data were drawn from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2009 (ICCS) of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The current study analyzed the data of 114,000 students (typically, 14-year-old eighth or ninth graders) in 34 countries. Multilevel analysis was performed for each country, and the results were compared across 34 countries. In each country, students were categorized into two groups using on the ICCS SES index—low-SES and high-SES groups based on the average SES score of each country.
Descriptive analysis shows that in 33 countries, high-SES adolescents have stronger internal political efficacy compared to low-SES adolescents. High-SES adolescents had higher civic knowledge scores, more participation experience at school, and better family context (parents’ political interest and discussions with parents) in all 34 countries. While low-SES students were less likely to perceive that their schools were open to classroom discussions, they were more likely to think that students had an influence on decisions about school in almost all countries. In more than 60% of countries, high-SES students had more community participation experience and low-SES students had more positive perceptions of student-teacher relations.
Multilevel analyses found that for both low- and high-SES groups in 32 countries, female had lower internal political efficacy than male students. Civic knowledge, school participation, and community participation had positive relationships with internal political efficacy for both groups in most countries. Two family contextual factors (parents’ political interest and discussions with parents) are positively related regardless of national context. School context showed somewhat different patterns between low- and high-SES groups across countries when including marginal significance (p < .1). Classroom discussions had positive relationships with the internal political efficacy of low-SES students in 18 countries and of high-SES students in 12 countries. Given the descriptive analysis result above, this is an interesting finding. Students’ influence is positively related for low-SES adolescents in 16 countries; but for high-SES adolescents in only 5 countries. Student-teacher relations are positively associated with internal political efficacy for low-SES adolescents in 21 countries and for high-SES adolescents in 16 countries. These results suggest that a democratic school climate not only promotes the internal political efficacy of disadvantaged and advantaged adolescents in diverse social contexts, but it also has the potential to reduce the “democracy divide” (Hess, 2008) among adolescents possessing differential social and economic capital.
The current study contributes to the political development scholarship and comparative citizenship education field by demonstrating how SES impacts the relationships between diverse personal and contextual factors and adolescents’ internal political efficacy under a wide range of national contexts. Moreover, this study stimulates further study of countries showing interesting efficacy development relationships. Lastly, the findings support the necessity of citizenship education based on a democratic school climate in order to narrow the civic inequality gap.

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