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2012 - ISPP 35th Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 269 words || 
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1. Goncalves Portelinha, Isabelle. and Elcheroth, Guy. "Shaping what we do by shaping how we think others think: The perception of the National Front in the 2012 French presidential election" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 35th Annual Scientific Meeting, Mart Plaza, Chicago, IL, Jul 06, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-10-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p571037_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: During the last decades, Western countries have become the scene of far-right parties’ ascension. In France, the National Front (NF) has become influential to the point of emerging amongst the strongest national political forces. Although for years voting for the NF party was perceived as socially undesirable as illustrated by the discrepancy between electoral outcomes and voting intentions reported by national opinion polls (e.g., the 2002 presidential election), votes favourable to the NF gradually became more acceptable. In this context, a crucial issue lies in identifying the sociopsychological processes underlying the shift in voters’ perception of the NF.
Drawing upon an integrated model of social representation and social identity processes (Elcheroth, Doise, & Reicher, 2011), the present research investigates the influence of meta-representations (i.e., beliefs as to what in-group members think) on attitudes towards the NF and on the willingness to publicly express these attitudes. While aiming at testing predictions derived from this novel approach, this study also examines whether individuals’ uncertainty in terms of political knowledge exacerbates the influence of meta-representations. To address these questions, a two-step experimental survey will be implemented in the ecological context of the 2012 French presidential election (i.e., prior to the first round and following the second round) and combined with a qualitative study.
First, exposure to media sources will be considered to examine how medias’ interpretation of the electoral results influence participants’ attitudes vis-à-vis the NF. Second, exposure to in-group members’ perception of the NF will be manipulated to explore whether meta-representations moderate participants’ attitudes towards the NF and their willingness to participate in a debate to publicly defend their attitudes.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7085 words || 
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2. Seebruck, Ryan. "State Repression and Collective Behavior: Testing the Hypothesized U-shaped and S-shaped Relationship between the Two" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1007926_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: To examine the impact of Internet penetration and state repression on protest frequency, I analyze time-series data from 82 countries from 1990 to 2007. Using a multilevel, random-intercept Poisson regression, I test and find extremely weak support for the hypothesis that increased Internet penetration increases protest, and I find strong support for the hypothesis of a curvilinear relationship between repression and protest. I find that increased repression will initially decrease protest frequency but that further repression will reach a breaking point that actually increases protest frequency. This finding is important in that it bridges the conflict in the literature over whether increased repression deters or radicalizes by demonstrating that it does both.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Barrett, Richard. "Citizenship as a Mutual Shaping and Being Shaped by Common Notions of Beauty" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1126182_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Current accounts of Plato's Protagoras are incomplete, either neglecting a significant part of the dialogue or missing its political implications. As a result, scholarly accounts of it tend to be one-dimensional and fail elucidate the way in which it speaks to life in today's liberal democracies.

The Protagoras begins with a discussion of superficial beauty compared to deeper beauty and ends with Socrates claiming he has stayed in order to favor the host of the dialogue, the beautiful Callias (kalō Kallia), a pun on the host's name which (often lost in translation) I argue should be taken as the “the noble beauty.” The middle of the dialogue centers around the critique of an obscure poem, which commentators typically dismiss as a “diversion” or as Socratic humor, but I contend is properly understood as a debate about a society's standard for goodness. My thesis is that the whole of the dialogue reveals that it is impossible to be a good human being without being a good citizen, and that both necessarily entail a mutual shaping and being shaped by the society's idea of the beautiful.

I begin with a concise summary of an epistemology grounded in Plato's Theaetetus, Republic, and Meno and apply it to the main questions of Plato's Protagoras: What is the political art and how can one make men good citizens? (319a). While Socrates initially doubts that such things can be taught, he describes how he is influenced by Protagoras's retelling of a myth and subsequent argument which “bewitches” him toward the beginning of the dialogue (315b). However, Protagoras's argument amounts to a version of moral relativism that Socrates rejects—not on moral grounds—but based on its failure to ultimately benefit the individual because individuals find themselves necessarily part of a larger whole. Finding Protagoras's understanding of the world incomplete (just as in the myth, the work of Epimetheus is incomplete), Socrates seeks to correct it (playing the role of Prometheus). He replaces the relativist's acceptance of each person's preferences as they are by “measuring well” which preferences can be satisfied simultaneously with the preferences of others'. Thus what individuals initially find pleasant is superseded with a new “good” that can be pursued in harmony with others. This amounts to pleasure being supplanted by the beautiful or noble, a concept of the good influenced by all in common. Helping to shape the society's idea of the beautiful and in turn being shaped by it constitutes a life together of ruling and being ruled in turn. Thus Socrates parries the pursuit of individual pleasure (superficial beauty) and champions the noble beauty (kalō Kallia).

In addition to demonstrating this by the arguments within the Protagoras, Plato also shows this conclusion in the dramatic action of the dialogue, depicting Socrates first as being shaped by the arguments of Protagoras and then shaping Protagoras in turn. This mutual learning is cast as a model of ruling and being ruled, and indeed, the drama sets this forth as the result of Socrates's rejection of having anyone rule over those in the conversation (338b) and instead asking and answering questions, overseeing the whole “in common,” (338d).

For the modern audience, this Platonic insight suggests certain limits to pluralism, while nonetheless indicating how a mutual willingness to allow oneself to be shaped at the same time one is shaped by others can make a pluralistic society flourish.

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