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2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 175 words || 
1. Fakhravar, Amir. and Alasti, Sanaz. "Islamic Terrorism: Sunni Extremism vs. Shiite Extremism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 17, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The differences between the Sunni and Shiite Islamic sects are rooted in disagreements over the succession to the Prophet Muhammad. The majority of the world’s Muslim population follows the Sunni branch of Islam, and minority Muslims follow the Shiite in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan.

As pointed out by RAND's Bruce Hoffman, in 1980 two out of 64 terrorist groups were categorized as largely religious in motivation; in 1995 almost half of the identified groups, 26 out of 56, were classified as religiously motivated; the majority of these espoused Islam as their guiding force.

This paper provides perspectives on the history, and ideologies associated with Islamic terrorism. Then we discuss about the role of the Soviet Union and Iran in funding, and supporting Islamic terrorism. For instance, since the declaration of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, the Islamic government has been accused of funding terrorists groups such as Hezbollah, Hamas, Quds Force and Khorasan.

Finally, the need for international cooperation in dealing with the Islamic terrorism is discussed with reference to possible economic, and military sanctions.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 7 pages || Words: 2460 words || 
2. Niethammer, Katja. "Stubborn Salafis and Moderate Shiites: Islamic Political Parties in Bahrain" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The behavior of Islamist parties in Bahrain challenges the now dominant academic view which postulates that participation in parliamentary regimes generally leads to the Islamists' moderation. In Bahrain, it is those Islamist groups who boycotted the last parliamentary elections that have become more moderate and pragmatic: the two Shiite Islamist parties. They advocate constitutional reform and engage in a purely pro-democracy discourse, cleared of Islamist rhetoric. Having developed out of a wide social movement fighting for equal rights for Shiites, they have set up a network of subsidiary party organizations through which they try to influence agenda-stetting. The two Sunni Islamist organizations inside parliament (one affiliated to the Muslim brotherhood, the other salafi) concentrate on different questions. Reflecting the social set-up of their respective constituencies, the middle class based Muslim brotherhood exclusively promotes its clientele's interest. Demands for Islamic rule do not figure prominently in their discourse, either. The picture is quite different with regard to the salafis, however: Salafi parliamentarians have become increasingly radical in their demands for Islamisation. Being very vocal on questions of morality, they have, amongst other popular Islamists demands, called for a 'religious police' Saudi style and for the incorporation of hadd punishments into Bahrain's penal law. These surprising findings should be explained considering a variety of factors, among them: the confessional dynamics of the Bahraini political scene; divergent state policies towards the different sects; the groups' different positions toward state institutions; and their different organizational structures. Based on ethnographic work, the paper will specify the conditions that contribute and constrain the moderation of Islamist parties in Bahrain.

3. Muck, William. and Barker, Philip. "A House Divided: An Analysis of Potential Solutions to the Emerging Shiite-Sunni Divide in Iraq" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In a previous paper, the authors argued that the emerging religious conflict in the Middle East between the West and the Islamic world is following a pattern similar to that of other historically intractable religious conflicts (i.e. Ireland). These conflicts, however, are not truly religious in nature. In contrast to Huntington’s arguments regarding the Clash of Civilizations, the authors have argued that clashes over policy (political, social, and economic) bring out the cultural and religious differences in society. In other words, these groups are not clashing because of their religious differences. Rather, their religious differences are being emphasized because of clashes over policy. In this paper, the argument is extended and applied to the developing clash between Sunni and Shiite groups in Iraq specifically and the region generally. The paper concludes by evaluating a number of policy alternatives for alleviating this tension, including power sharing and partition. As these groups continue to battle over their roles in the new Iraq (and Middle East), religion provides a powerful tool for drawing the line between “us” and “them”. The warning is issued that, unless proper steps are taken soon, these divisions will become increasingly immutable and religious-based, thereby eliminating (or at least minimizing) the potential for future solutions.

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