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2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 1 pages || Words: 492 words || 
1. Appold, Stephen. and Yuen, Belinda. "Singaporean Family Life in High-Rise Apartment Blocks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: It's a commonplace that life in apartment blocks is not suited for families with children. Space is too cramped. The transportation of babies and groceries is too inconvenient. The supervision of playing children is too difficult. Yet in many cities of the world, particularly in parts of Asia, families have little choice. In Singapore approximately xx percent of the population lives in public housing – much of which is in "slab blocks" of about 12 storeys and in "point blocks" of 20, 25, and 30 storeys. In addition, approximately yy percent of the population live in condominiums, most of which are also apartment blocks. The modal family person in Singapore is an apartment dweller. How does life in an apartment block affect daily life? Do family members spend more time together – or less? Does a family receive frequent visits from others? How are casual trips out of the house affected?

We analyze the 24-hour time diaries of the pilot responses in the first study of household time use in Singapore. The xx respondents are spread across yy households (all household members aged 12 and over were asked to respond). The sample was comprised of high-rise residents split between high and low floors (up to the 30th floor) and split between a location very convenient to a town center and one that requires a feeder bus to arrive at a town center. The diaries record primary and secondary activities, the people involved in each activity, and the place of each activity. The time diaries are linked to household questionnaire data on perceptions of high-rise living.

The results allow us to compare the living patterns of families in high-rise flats with those in single-family houses in other countries and to compare those on high floors with those on low floors and those near a town center and those more distant.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 10457 words || 
2. Ou, Meimin. "Generation Gap = Gap in Online Privacy Perceptions? The Case for Singaporean Youths and Their Parents" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: As social networking sites (SNS) become a mainstay in the media environment of Singaporean youths, Singaporean parents, educators and policymakers are seeking to better understand the facets of online social interaction in SNS to ensure youths’ safety online. There is a prevailing social concern that the generation gap between youths, who are digital natives, and their parents, may lead to differences in online privacy perceptions, thus hindering parents when guiding their youths in safeguarding their privacy online.

The online surveys based on the Westin privacy scale conducted on both Singaporean parents and youths ascertained their online privacy perceptions and the parents’ knowledge of youths’ information disclosure in Facebook. The findings indicate no significant disparity in privacy perceptions between Singaporean parents and youths; both demographic groups are privacy-oriented, but youths are willing to compromise some privacy to allow their peers to understand them better by disclosing more personal information on Facebook.

2014 - AAAL Annual Conference Words: 43 words || 
3. Chee Lay, Tan., Li, Li. and May Lin, Lum. "Singaporean Chinese Children’s Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Chinese Oral and Written Language Ability" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAAL Annual Conference, Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront, Portland, OR, Mar 22, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examined Singaporean Chinese-English bilingual children’s home literacy environment(HLE) and its influence on their Chinese oral and written language ability. Additional contribution of HLE over language preference was found to children’s Chinese written language ability but not to their oral language ability.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 489 words || 
4. Ng, Leong Hwee., Qu, Li. and Cheah, Charissa. "Understanding Authoritative Parenting and its Relations to Conduct Problems and Hyperactivity in Singaporean Children" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The authoritative parenting style (warmth/acceptance, reasoning oriented regulation, and autonomy granting) has been shown to be associated with children’s prosocial engagement, cooperation, and moral concern for others’ interests (Baumrind, 1971). Authoritative parenting styles in Asian parents, similar to European American counterparts, were found to negatively predict children’s difficulties and hyperactivity (Cheah, Leung, Tahseen, & Schultz, 2009). Authoritative mothers make age-appropriate demands within a supportive context to promote early self-regulation, leading to fewer child behavioral problems (Kuczynski & Kochanska, 1995). Some studies have questioned the relevance of authoritative parenting within the Asian cultural context, as Chinese parents may be more directive in their parenting and would downplay the expression of warmth (i.e., authoritarian), in line with traditional Confucian beliefs in child training and emotional reservedness (Chao, 1994; Wu et al., 2002). Other researchers suggested that the social context of Chinese living is Westernized and that the function of these care-giving dimensions are similar to Western populations (Chang, Lansford, Schwartz, & Farver, 2004). To address the mixed findings, to the present study investigated how the different components of authoritative parenting would differentially predict Asian children’s behavioral outcomes.
Participants included 102 parents of Singaporean preschoolers (M age = 75.02 months, SD = 9.50) who completed measures assessing their Authoritative parenting style (Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire; Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen & Hart, 2001), and their children’s Conduct Problems and Hyperactivity (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; Goodman, 1997). Two separate hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted with children’s conduct problems and hyperactivity as the dependent variables. First, children’s age and gender were entered, followed by the Authoritative parenting style scores. The results revealed that Authoritative parenting style, β = -.268, t = -2.749, p < .01, significantly predicted fewer conduct problems, F(3, 98) = 3.377, p < .05, ΔR2= .066. Authoritative parenting style, β = -.238, t = -2.450, p < .05, also significant predicted lower hyperactivity, F(3, 98) = 3.639, p < .05, ΔR2= .073. For the second model, after controlling for child gender and age, 3 components of Authoritative parenting (Warmth, Reasoning and Autonomy) were entered. Reasoning, β = -.333, t = -2.636, p < .01, significantly predicted, F(5, 96) = 2.747, p < .05, ΔR2= .080, fewer conduct problems, but not Warmth and Autonomy. Reasoning, β = -.234, t = -1.842, p < .10, also significantly predicted, F(5, 96) = 2.431, p < .05, ΔR2= .066, lower hyperactivity, but not Warmth and Autonomy.
Our findings suggest that the subscales for authoritative parenting may contribute differently to Singaporean children’s externalizing outcomes. For Asian parents who tend to be more controlling, the use of reasoning, a regulatory practice, was most strongly associated with children’s conduct problems and hyperactivity. The traditional Chinese focus on emotional restraint and parental control and parent-child interdependence (Ho, 2008) may explain the less significant role of parental warmth and autonomy in ameliorating children’s externalizing difficulties. Alternatively, parental warmth and autonomy may be more important for other child outcomes, such as self-esteem.

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 689 words || 
5. Fang, Yanping. "Understanding Singapore's Mathematics Problem Solving Curriculum and Pedagogy through a Singaporean Upper Elementary Teacher's Lessons" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Understanding Singapore's Mathematics Problem Solving Curriculum and Pedagogy through an Upper Elementary School Teacher's Lessons


Mathematics problem solving (MPS) has long been emphasized in many countries’ school curriculum but Singapore’s is unique in that it places MPS in the center of its curriculum framework surrounded by a pentagon model of 5 key elements – Concepts, Skills, processes, metacognition and attitudes. Both international and local scholars studying the enactment of this curriculum in the elementary classroom has had mixed messages: teaching has been either focused on solving advanced word problems through the well-known model method catering to student thinking or has been teacher-dominated rote learning through practice and drill. Our research on Singapore elementary classroom teaching in the past decade has yielded a number of insights that have allowed us to characterize and conceptualize such teaching by bringing to bear on its social cultural meanings. In this paper, I intend to share some of such insights based on findings from careful examination of one teacher’s video-recorded lessons in two of our research projects he has participated in the past decade, such as coding of his classroom discourse showing a dominance of teacher-initiated talks but a high proportion of ‘processes’ and ‘metacognition’ in engaging students’ thinking and a prominent pedagogical feature of capitalizing on student mistakes in marked student work in helping with students’ understanding.

Theoretical Framework:
Social cultural perspectives are used as our guiding lenses in viewing classroom dynamics, teaching and learning practice as activity systems, levels of tool- and resource-mediation in generating interactions and externalizing meaning, and mistakes and misconceptions as shared object teaching and learning for discernment.

Research Design:
Our research design has involved a quantitative component with baseline data collected by observing and videotaping lessons of 20 classrooms to capture teaching and learning patterns in the first stage followed by in-depth qualitative lesson analysis and intervention to help improve classroom practices in the second stage.

Data Sources:
Our data sources include classroom observation field notes, video record of lessons, teacher interviews, video record of student problem solving pair work and collected student work samples from the lessons.

Because of space constraint, a few more broad findings are reported below:
1. Close analysis of one teacher’s classroom teaching discourse has enabled us to see what it looks like when there is a close alignment between curriculum goals aimed to focus on thinking processes and the classroom teaching practice, a key characteristic of centralized East Asian education systems which has appealed to Western scholars in education for a long time (such as Cohen & Spillane, 1992).

2. Drill and practice is the norm as commonly believed yet teacher-led feedback sessions by going over marked student work could point to important pedagogical features that are part and parcel of East Asian classrooms. Common student misconceptions, procedural inaccuracies, and poor habit of work displayed in student work become shared object of learning and thinking interrogated by the teachers, steps of correction or improvement are then carefully demonstrated, often with rationale behind them made clear. Good attitudes towards learning mathematics are passed to students by design and default.

3. Teacher knowledge displayed in the lessons show high occurrence of PCK built upon student misconceptions and different pedagogical representations in addressing them.
4. Teaching for problem solving is too encompassing to capture what happens in Mr Tan’s practice. In fact, the either/or approach to studying mathematics teaching as either teaching for, about or via problem solving has often led researchers to dispose too early or see but fail to notice what they observed and thus led them to fragmented or partial view of teaching and learning taking place in those classrooms which in fact could be a mixture of all three approaches to more or less extent.

Significance of comparative education:
Our findings have profound implications for research that explores the East Asian Pedagogy or East Asian Learner Paradox and points towards what is commonly shared in East Asian cultures and what is uniquely Singapore. They also make more nuanced the notion of mathematics problem solving and student-centered teaching and pose new questions or asking them in new ways for international comparative studies i curriculum, pedagogy and teacher development.

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