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2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. LIU, Mengyu. "Do Language Skills Pay Off? Earnings Returns to English Skill and Mandarin Skill in Hong Kong" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1117476_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper analyzes earnings returns to English skill and Mandarin skill in Hong Kong. Combining two datasets from Hong Kong and using OLS method, I find that controlling other factors, people who can speak English enjoy 12.1 percent higher monthly income than those who cannot. Comparatively, Mandarin skill dose not bring high earnings returns, only 1.6 percent. Then I concentrate on English skill and find the heterogeneity of premium for English skill in gender, education, occupation and cohort. Results from Brown et al decomposition reveal that between-occupation differentials are dominant in total differentials of monthly income between people with English skill and people without English skill, indicating the language exclusion based on English. Furthermore, family background has a significant effect on individuals’ English proficiency, the mechanism of which is through personal educational attainment. These findings shed light on the role of language skills in income inequality and social reproduction.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 14027 words || 
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2. Hochfellner, Daniela. and Wapler, Ruediger. "Do High-Skilled Immigrants Find Jobs Faster Than Low-Skilled Immigrants?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p999413_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper investigates the role that pre-immigration skills play in immigrants job-finding processes in Germany. We first show theoretically that the job-finding rate for the high-skilled depends on which jobs they are prepared to take up: if they are only willing to take up skilled jobs (ex post segmented matching), they might actually need longer than the low-skilled to find a job. If they are prepared to accept both unskilled as well as skilled jobs (cross-skill matching), then their expected time to find a job is lower compared to that of the low-skilled. Allowing for on-the-job search can lead to high-skilled finding skilled jobs even faster. We then provide empirical evidence by studying the labour-market integration process of Ethnic Germans, one of the largest immigration groups in Germany, using novel German administrative data. Applying proportional hazard models, our estimates generally support the theoretical predictions: if the high-skilled only search for skilled jobs, the likelihood of finding a job is about 50% lower compared to the low-skilled. In case of cross-skill matching, the job finding rate of the high- and low-skilled does not differ significantly. Furthermore, using a timing-of-events model, we find evidence that low-skilled jobs serve as a stepping stone for high-skilled to find skilled employment.

2016 - Southwestern Social Science Association 97th Annual Meeting Words: 329 words || 
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3. Yerger, David. and Vick, Brandon. "Assessing the Skill Intensity of Post-2001 Veterans’ Civilian Occupations: Revealed Skill Advantages and Implications for Transitioning to Civilian Employment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Social Science Association 97th Annual Meeting, Paris and Bally’s Hotels, Las Vegas, Nevada, Mar 23, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1110911_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This research analyzes the civilian employment occupations for 25-40 year olds across 504 occupations for non-veterans and Post-2001 veterans (p2001vets) using five-year 2009-2013 Public ACS Microdata (PUMS) and Department of Labor data (O*Net) on the importance of 35 different skills by detailed occupation. The first part of the analysis examines the distribution of employment across occupations for p2001vets as compared to non-veterans controlling for gender, age, and educational attainment. While there are differences in the occupations in which p2001vets and non-veterans are more concentrated, the overall concentration of employment across the 504 occupations shows minimal differences between non-veterans and p2001vets, suggesting p2001vets’ employment is not excessively concentrated.

The second part of this research examines the skill intensity of p2001vets’ employment using O*net data on the importance of 35 different skills by occupation. A “composite skill profile” by gender for both non-veterans and p2001vets will be created for several different educational attainment categories. By comparing non-veterans to p2001vets, differences in the composite skill values will indicate skills more strongly associated with p2001vets’ employment. A better understanding of the skills most strongly associated with p2001vets’ employment will be useful when analyzing potential civilian occupation pathways for veterans transitioning out of the military.

The final part of this research searches for occupations with similar skill profiles to popular p2001vets occupations that presently have relatively low p2001vets’ employment. Within each of the educational attainment categories, the occupations with the largest share of p2001 veterans’ employment by gender will be identified. Next, each of these occupations will be compared against the other 503 occupations in the data set using a “Skill Similarity Index” to identify those occupations most similar across the 35 skills. The share of p2001vets’ employment in these “most similar” occupations will be examined in order to identify occupations that have similar skill requirements to popular occupations for p2001vets, but currently do not have comparable levels of p2001vets’ employment. These findings will be useful for assisting veterans currently transitioning to civilian employment.

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