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2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. LIU, Mengyu. "Do Language Skills Pay Off? Earnings Returns to English Skill and Mandarin Skill in Hong Kong" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-01-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1117476_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper analyzes earnings returns to English skill and Mandarin skill in Hong Kong. Combining two datasets from Hong Kong and using OLS method, I find that controlling other factors, people who can speak English enjoy 12.1 percent higher monthly income than those who cannot. Comparatively, Mandarin skill dose not bring high earnings returns, only 1.6 percent. Then I concentrate on English skill and find the heterogeneity of premium for English skill in gender, education, occupation and cohort. Results from Brown et al decomposition reveal that between-occupation differentials are dominant in total differentials of monthly income between people with English skill and people without English skill, indicating the language exclusion based on English. Furthermore, family background has a significant effect on individuals’ English proficiency, the mechanism of which is through personal educational attainment. These findings shed light on the role of language skills in income inequality and social reproduction.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 21 pages || Words: 6421 words || 
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2. Fugiero, Melissa. "An Investigation of Interpersonal Soft Skills: What Differences Exist by Race and Gender in the Ability to Access Occupations Requiring Greater Amounts of Soft Skills?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-01-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p103164_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In soft skill discrimination, African-Americans are believed to be less
skilled in interacting with customers than whites. If employers are engaging
in soft skill discrimination against African-Americans, then, it would then
follow that African-Americans should be less likely to be promoted into jobs
with higher soft skill requirements. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of
Youth 1979-2000, I investigate these claims using a measure of soft skills
derived from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Blacks are less likely to gain
access to occupations involving higher amounts of soft skills, net of
controls. While work experience increases white menÂ’s access to occupations
with greater soft skill requirements, this is not true for black men and
women. Analyses by educational attainment shows that this pattern holds only
for high school dropouts and high school graduates.
Supporting Publications:
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2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 133 words || 
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3. Koons, Cynthia. "Life skills education assessments: Knowledge, attitudes, and skills" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-01-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p518855_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: UNICEF will present on life skills learning assessment: why it is important, and how it can be done in crisis affected contexts. Life skills are critical for children living in environments prone to disaster and conflict; they can contribute to reduced risk, increased resilience, and improved recovery. Assessment of learning outcomes is a crucial component of quality life skills education. Still, life skills education is lagging behind other subjects in quality, practical methodologies for assessments and evaluations. UNICEF will share an approach to assessment that includes key steps such as: ensuring alignment of assessment items and learning objectives, relevant teacher training, and preparation and planning. We will explore how learning assessments can motivate educators and learners, as well as provide the basis for improved evidenced based quality life skills programming in crisis-affected contexts.

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