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2009 - 94th Annual Convention Words: 191 words || 
1. Vincent, Godfrey. "Slave Resistance to the Georgia Slave Codes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 94th Annual Convention, Hilton Cincinnati Netherland Plaza, Cincinnati, Ohio, <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: This paper is not about an examination of Slavery as it operated in Georgia. Instead, it is an examination of how the slaves resisted chattel slavery in Georgia from 1755 until President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. By using the various volumes of the Georgia Slave Narratives, Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies, other primary sources and some secondary sources, journal articles and books, this research paper will examine how slaves in Georgia: men, women and children resisted slavery despite the passing of and amendments to the Georgia Slave Codes. This paper argues that slaves in Georgia used both active and passive forms of resistance in their quest to destroy the institution of slavery.
The paper will proceed in the following manner: moving from the introduction, it will describe and analyze the Georgia Slave Codes. Next, it will interrogate the Georgia Slave Narratives to see how the slaves responded to various sections of the Georgia slave codes. Moreover, it will provide an analysis of the various forms of resistance. Finally, it will conclude by offering some thoughts on how scholars should look at slave resistance.

2017 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 196 words || 
2. Lauer, Matt. "The Gang-Beating of the Slave Myŏngaek: A Magistrate's Strategic Representation of Slave Resistance" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Scholarship on the position of slaves in the late Chosŏn legal system often notes that the emergence of slaves with considerable stores of wealth generated sociopolitical pressures that led to changes in the law codes. Increased recognition of the property rights of slaves, among other rights, formed the central component of those changes. This paper presents a case from early 18th-century Namwŏn concerning a slave whose treatment by the local magistrate suggests a different picture. Myŏngaek, the slave in question, became involved in a love triangle with a local military official and was eventually beaten by that official because of it. The magistrate's handling of the case involves a strategic invocation of slaves' rights for the purposes of convicting the military official, but not exactly for upholding the slaves' rights. The magistrate develops a clever strategy to pressure the military official—one which invokes the increased rights of slaves but, unfortunately, never in a genuine way. This presents a conundrum for understanding the position of slaves in the late Chosŏn: though the strategic aspects of Myŏngaek's case suggests that legal protections were in place, the actual enforcement of those protections were at the discretion of the magistrate.

2017 - 102nd Annual Meeting and Conference of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History Words: 145 words || 
3. Fett, Sharla. "“ ‘From Congo in a Slave Ship’: The Illegal Slave Trade, West Central African Youth, and Free Black Activists in 1860 New York”" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 102nd Annual Meeting and Conference of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Hilton Cincinnati Netherland Plaza Hotel, Cincinnati, OH, <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: This paper examines the work of James Pennington, the Weekly-Anglo African, and other African American abolitionist responses to the illegal transatlantic slave trade of the 1850s-1860. As newspapers and other publications increased awareness of the conduct of illegal slave traffickers at the mouth of the Congo River, the word “Congo” came to represent in African American print culture both a region and a people with heightened vulnerability to white slavers and racial oppression globally. By 1860, US naval engagement with slave trade suppression brought Congo recaptives into American custody and within reach of Black abolitionist advocacy in New York. The final years of the transatlantic slave trade thus drew new figurative and literal connections between African Americans and the West Central Africans referred to as “Congos,” well in advance of late-nineteenth- century African American advocacy against Congo Free State colonial atrocities.

2013 - 37th Annual National Council for Black Studies Words: 383 words || 
4. Abaka, Edmund. "“A Slave Ship at Permanent Anchor”: São Jorge da Mina, the Atlantic Slave and the African Diaspora" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 37th Annual National Council for Black Studies, The Westin Hotel - Downtown, Indianapolis, ID, Mar 13, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Panelist Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Nothing encapsulates the European presence in the Gold Coast more than São Jorge da Mina, the humungous Portuguese castle that was built at Elmina in 1482. The largest such structure outside of Europe at the time of its construction, the Portuguese castle was taken over by the Dutch in 1637 when the latter established the largest commercial empire in the world in the seventeenth century. Impressive for its size and architectural plan, the castle laid the foundation, and provided the blueprint, for the over thirty European fortifications that were built on the Gold Coast by the English, the Dutch, the Danes, and the Brandenburgers (Prussians). Many of these later European fortifications utilized the double enclosure plan which the Portuguese utilized first at Elmina, and later, at Axim (Fort São Antonio) and Shama (Fort Sebastião).
The Elmina Castle, together with the well-kept European cemetery in Elmina, also constitute one of most impressive and remarkable monuments of the Atlantic Slave trade anywhere in the world and provide an important case study of the Euro-African contact. It also speaks to the African experience in a way that only a few monuments can. The slave coffles from the interior all disappeared into the cavernous walls of the slave castle, the last stop of enslaved Africans before their departure for the New World. What was the slave castle experience and what does it tell about the Atlantic slave trade and the African diaspora?
Together with plans, eyewitness accounts of Portuguese and Dutch personnel of the period, this paper captures the role of the European fortifications on the Gold Coast in the Black experience. It argues that the Middle Passage experience began even before, but importantly, in the “slave ship at permanent anchor,” São Jorge da Mina, and the process that resulted in bonding on some of the slave ships all began in the slave castle before the Atlantic Passage. Consequently, the ‘boundaries’ of Atlantic Studies and the Black Atlantic must incorporate the slave castle experience in order to capture the totality of the Black experience. The project also “captures” the role of other workers of the Atlantic trade, largely, enslaved Africans who worked in the slave castle, and therefore, experienced their “Middle Passage” in this “slave ship at permanent anchor.”

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