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2007 - Association for the Study of African American Life and History Words: 261 words || 
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1. Kozel, Sue. "“Historical Slavery – Invisible Slaves: Absent Slavery in Family/Local Histories for Upper Freehold and Allentown, New Jersey" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Atlanta Hilton, Charlotte, NC, Oct 03, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p206163_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: My paper explores the “invisible” slavery for Upper Freehold and Allentown, NJ, colonial towns known for their commercial and agrarian traditions. Conservatively, at least 300 African-American slaves lived in Upper Freehold and Allentown, NJ during the colonial and post-Revolutionary periods. Slaves are invisible in many local and family histories. The region’s “historical slavery” is sometimes acknowledged in official government historical records for the purposes of tax payments, land ownership, estate inventories, slave births, and manumissions. Reading many of the region’s family and local histories, slaves remain invisible. It appears the issue of slavery is discussed, directly or indirectly, in the context of manumissions or homes that were Underground Railroad; presentations that are more positive than the realities of slavery. Why the omission of slavery? Building on the groundbreaking work by Dr. Russell Graham Hodges and the scholarship of Giles R. Wright of the New Jersey Historical Commission, my paper will showcase the names of some of these slaves and free African-Americans, and slave holding families, based on archival research from Manumission records, Slave Birth Book records, the reading of writers of Quaker and Baptist family histories, local family histories, historical reviews and photo essays of the region, and maps and tax records. My research is dedicated to one slave whose slave name was,” Polodor Emlon”. The anagram, when unscrambled, becomes poor old lemon. It is my goal to see his slave’s story and that of other slaves included in the Upper Freehold Historic Farmland Byway narrative, a public history project.

2009 - 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 206 words || 
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2. Khan, Nafees. "Slavery by the book: Exploring the presentation of slavery in secondary U.S. and Brazilian history textbooks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Francis Marion Hotel, Charleston, South Carolina, Mar 22, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p302652_index.html>
Publication Type: Dissertation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In social studies classrooms textbooks serve as both arbiters of official knowledge and as tools for instruction. As such, it is important to investigate how these books present historical content to both teachers and students and whether that presentation reflects current historical scholarship and critical thinking and interpretation. The purpose of this study is to explore how secondary U.S. and Brazilian history textbooks have presented the topic of slavery over the last century. Some historians have called slavery American history’s greatest and most enduring paradox; it remains a significant topic for historians as well as a topic with lasting legacies in both Brazilian and American society. As a result, it is an important topic to be taught and learned in history courses. In this study I will conduct a content analysis of each textbook to assess the degree to which the complexities and legacies of slavery have been addressed. There are three central research questions that guide this project: 1) How do secondary U.S. and Brazilian history textbooks present slavery? 2) To what degree are the complexities and legacies of slavery addressed by textbooks? 3) How has the presentation of slavery in the textbooks changed over time?

2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 298 words || 
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3. Khan, Nafees. "Slavery in two nations: Examining the presentation of slavery in secondary U.S. and Brazilian history textbooks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p493501_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Both the United States and Brazil have long and complicated histories of slavery, which have led to varying legacies and understandings about slavery in their respective societies. This important topic remains controversial and future generations need to be given as accurate information as possible about the history, complexities, and legacies of slavery in order to be well-informed citizens. This study sought to provide an assessment of the general narrative of the history of slavery as it is presented in secondary history textbooks in the United States and Brazil. I systematically analyzed the content relating to slavery in the textbooks, and assessed the degree to which the complexities and legacies of slavery are addressed in both nations. I used content analysis to highlight significant patterns on the presentation of slavery across the textbooks.

I drew on research from history education and democratic citizenship to inform my theoretical framework. Barton and Levstik’s concept of democratic humanistic education combines purpose and instruction to provide not only a rationale for history education, but also a framework to examine whether the intended curriculum facilitates education for democracy. In this study I found several important patterns. Among these were that the political and social spheres of history dominated the references to slavery. Also, the authors of all textbooks essentialized the varied experiences of enslaved people, particularly those of enslaved women. As one of history’s great injustices, the topic of slavery remains an enduring and controversial issue with legacies that transcend many contemporary concerns that include, but are not limited to race, class, gender, and identity. This study will contribute valuable knowledge to the fields of social studies and history education and comparative education by focusing on this important topic from a comparative perspective.

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 721 words || 
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4. Khan, Nafees. "Slavery in two nations: Examining the presentation of slavery in secondary U.S. and Brazilian history textbooks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p717523_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In social studies classrooms textbooks serve as arbiters of official knowledge as well as tools for instruction. As such, it is important to investigate how these books present historical content to both teachers and students and whether that presentation reflects current historical scholarship and is likely to stimulate critical thinking and interpretation. The purpose of this study was to explore how the topic of slavery was presented in secondary U.S. and Brazilian history textbooks. The United States and Brazil were the two largest slave societies in the history of New World slavery and the varying legacies of that history remain salient in both nations. As a result, slavery and the slave trade are important topics to be taught in history courses and future generations need to be given as accurate information as possible about the history, complexities, and legacies of slavery in order to be well-informed citizens.
For this study, I utilized Nash and Crabtree’s (1996) rationale for history education and Barton and Levstik’s (2004) concept of democratic humanistic education to inform my theoretical framework. Democratic humanistic education combines purpose and instruction to provide not only a rationale for history education, but also a framework to examine whether the intended curriculum facilitates education for democracy. Together, the arguments for the purposes of history from Barton and Levstik (2004) and Nash and Crabtree (1996) encourage a history curriculum that is relevant, complex, active, and consistent with the ideals of a democratic society. These rationales are useful for a comparative study of history textbooks.
Drawing on the scholarship of Beck and McKeown (1991), Krippendorf (2003), Neuendorf (2002), Nicholls (2003), and Pingel (2010), I conducted a systematic content analysis of eight textbooks widely used in the two countries to address three questions: (1) how do secondary U.S. and Brazilian history textbooks present the history of slavery? (2) What are the similarities and differences in the presentation of slavery in U.S. and Brazilian textbooks? (3) To what degree do U.S. and Brazilian textbooks address the complexities and legacies of slavery? I first created a keyword list in both English and Portuguese based on several sources from the historical scholarship on slavery. These lists allowed me to then identify the sentences and paragraphs in the textbook that explicitly covered an aspect of slavery and to determine what topics were emphasized in the book. I strengthened the validity of my keyword list by having two historians who were experts on U.S. and Brazilian slavery review the list and offer feedback on my selections. I then calculated inter-coder coefficients to improve the reliability of my analysis.
In this study I found several important patterns. Among these were that the political and social spheres of history dominated the references to slavery. Brazilian textbooks had more references to the economic sphere of slavery than the U.S. textbooks, but the U.S. authors highlighted more extraordinary individuals in relation to slavery than did the Brazilian authors. The authors of all eight textbooks essentialized the varied experiences of enslaved people; in particular they did not address the unique experiences of enslaved women as it relates to the constant threat of sexual exploitation. There was more information on the enslavement of indigenous people in Brazilian books than there was on the enslavement of Native Americans in U.S. textbooks. The overriding narrative of the U.S. textbooks was one of American progress, the idea that from one generation to the next, society was advancing towards the ideals laid out in the founding documents, the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. Slavery has been incorporated into that story as an example of how the society has improved, but still has more to do. In Brazilian textbooks, I found a general theme of progress. However, this idea of progress was slightly different than the concept I found in U.S. books. Brazilian textbooks did not highlight a specific set of founding documents, like the United States, and instead offered a less defined ideal society, but one that nonetheless progresses over time. As one of history’s great injustices, the topic of slavery remains an enduring and controversial issue with legacies that transcend many contemporary concerns that include, but are not limited to race, class, gender, and identity.

2015 - National Women's Studies Association Words: 99 words || 
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5. Alfredson, Lisa. "Making the Familial Visible in Modern Slavery: Slavery through Marriage, Adoption and Blood" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Women's Studies Association, Wisconsin Center, Milwaukee, WI, Nov 12, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1024976_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In slavery studies negligible attention has been given to what this paper describes as “familial slavery” involving slave-slaver relations that are also familial (marriage, adoption, birth/blood). Some scholars dismiss relevant familial practices as true slavery, many make inclusive references, but few study them. Through interdisciplinary analysis of a comprehensive range of practices, this paper develops a framework for understanding familial slavery which bridges feminist and slavery theory, explains when abusive familial relations cross the line into slavery, how familial relations enable relations of slavery and why they are important. In turn, it develops new insights regarding populations of concern.

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