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2005 - American Society of Criminology Words: 231 words || 
1. Winterdyk, John. and Antonopoulos, Georgios. "Smuggling migrants in Greece: Trying to understand the problem" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Royal York, Toronto, <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Individual paper presentation/ standard panel
Category H, International and Comparative Criminology #51

Smuggling migrants in Greece: Trying to understand the problem
John Winterdyk (Mount Royal College, Calgary, AB., CANANDA)
Georgios Antonopoulos (Durham University, Durham, ENGLAND)

Following up on a qualitative case study the presenters did on a sex-trade trafficker in 2004, this study focused on the challenge of trying to obtain reliable data on the extent of smuggling migrants into Greece. The study was also motivated by a recent UN report which acknowledged that among the EU members, Greece has one of the more serious problems with illegal migrants. In order to get a sense of the problem and difficulty in quantifying the problem, as noted by Jena-Phillippe Chauzy of the International Organization for Migration, we examined four different sources of data in an effort to better understand the limitations associated with trying to obtain reliable and valid data on the subject. The four data sources included: interviews with police officers, official statistics, interviews with a number of migrants, and interviews with several known smugglers. In the study we also examined the current extent and nature of migrant smuggling in Greece and contrast it with other EU members. The presentation will conclude by identify a number of the major limitations confronting data collection of smuggling as well as offer a number of policy recommendations that could serve to ameliorate the situation.

Correspondence to: John Winterdyk
Fax: 403-440-6992

2. Jacobson, Ruth. "Smuggling in the ‘f’ word" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Recent decades have seen some fruitful intersections of feminist scholarship in the academy and feminist activism within the world of development institutions e.g. the recognition of the economic value of women’s reproductive labour. However, a sizeable a

2011 - International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition" Words: 189 words || 
3. Brigden, Noelle. "Stateless Smuggling: How Salvadoran Illegal Migration Routes Respond to Gaps in the Mexican State’s Monopoly of Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition", Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, Mar 16, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Existing literature shows how undocumented migrants increasingly depend on smugglers as state policing intensifies. However, I add that undocumented migrants also increasingly depend on smugglers as the state monopoly on violence weakens. For example, in Mexico, a variety of narcotrafficking groups, assassins and the corrupt officials tax the migratory routes. Their shifting alliances and conflicts exacerbate the uncertainty of travel conditions. Migrants and their smugglers exploit gaps in state control to cross national borders clandestinely. Simultaneously, migrants and their smugglers must also cope with gaps in state control to cross territory contested by these non-state actors. I draw on both fieldwork among Salvadoran migrants and secondary materials to trace the relationship between statelessness and state policing, as well as its impact on migration practices and violence against migrants in Mexico. The interplay between illegal routes and state-led smuggling suppression efforts created gaps in the monopoly of violence. These stateless zones shape undocumented migration practices from Central America. Ultimately, I propose that violence against migrants will continue and smugglers will be necessary to navigate it, unless the US adopts an aggressive approach to protecting human security, rather than state security.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 223 words || 
4. Heuer, Rae. "Oil for Terrorism: The effectiveness of Western intervention in ISIS's oil smuggling operations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: ISIS has established itself as a threat to both Western nations and Middle Eastern countries. The most critical factor in destroying this threat, the organization’s linchpin, is oil. Oil has provided ISIS with both the funds necessary to finance an expanding infrastructure and population, as well as, a sought after natural resource that provides both military and political mobility. The West has attempted to target this linchpin, hoping to diminish the threat of ISIS, by demonstrating military force in the form of airstrikes. This military solution, while it succeeded in slightly decreasing production rates, has in no way prohibited ISIS from obtaining lucrative profits through oil sales, nor has it inhibited their procurement of fuel through oil refinery. With the military solution having failed, and economic power as the source of the problem, it is reasonable to focus on political influence as a way to limit the power that oil sales have in supporting the ISIS regime. In discussing this hypothesis, I will focus on Turkey, a primary route taken by ISIS oil smugglers, to determine whether an increase in diplomatic influence by Western nations would give Turkey reason to tighten their borders and lessen their reliance on black market oil. Presenting countries with an incentive to discontinue the purchase of black market oil would decrease oil sales and deplete ISIS’s economic power.

2016 - ASEEES Convention Words: 105 words || 
5. Caplan, Marc. "Smuggling the Goles: Peripheralities of Language and Location in Oyzer Varshavski's Shmuglars" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEEES Convention, Washington Marriott Wardman Park, Washington, DC, <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Oyzer Varshavsky balances the tension between the mandates of representing life and making art by writing about a group of traditional Polish Jews who initiate a smuggling network to bring alcohol and contraband from the Polish countryside into German-occupied Warsaw during WWI. The act of smuggling between the shtetl and the city at the narrative level functions discursively as a trope of circulation between tradition and modernity that erodes language itself. Marc Caplan will analyze the linguistic negotiations of Yiddish, Polish, and German that figure the politics, temporality, and aesthetics of the narrative and make up the idiom of representation in Varshavsky's 1920 novel Shmuglars.

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