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2006 - Association for the Study of African American Life and History Words: 223 words || 
1. Boykin, Arsene. "H. P. Brown, Black Power, SNCC, Harlem, Columbia University, Morningside Park Whose Park is it?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, NA, Atlanta, GA, Sep 26, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: In the sixties strange things begin to happen. H. Rap Brown used the .black power creed as a source of power to control plans of Columbia University to build a gym on 30.1 acres of Morningside Park in Harlem. H. Rap Brown was called Rap because he could “sure work a crowd” When the Student Afro American Society (SAS) had taken over Hamilton Hall and a hostage Dean Coleman... H. Rap Brown entered and announced, “We want to thank you for taking the first steps in this struggle. SNCC is now in charge.”. Six large, black males approached five white jocks that refused to abandon guardianship of the Dean. The black men moved them. There are in fact relatively simple problems in the morals which cannot be decided from the laws. The black power creed generated an irresistible power to resolve the conflict. The five white jocks left and six black guards formed outside Coleman’s door. Power is the production of intended effects.When reporters came they had no option but to put their mike in an Afro-American face. H. Rap Brown’s strategy is replicable. Promptness of decision, Unity of command, strict discipline and rhetoric to “work a crowd”. We propose H. Rap Brown as a not to be forgotten worthy in African- American History.

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 40 pages || Words: 16249 words || 
2. Paden, Catherine. "Representation of the Politically Vulnerable: An analysis of SNCC's and the NAACP's representation of low-income African Americans" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite the legislative victories of the civil rights movement, low-income African Americans have continued to face rising levels of poverty over the past three decades. Because of this ongoing
relationship between civil rights and economic justice, and despite disincentives, civil rights organizations have all, at times during
their history, chosen to advocate on behalf of low-income African
Americans. Therefore, this paper examines the factors that contributed
to organizations' decisions to advocate on behalf of politically
unpopular groups, such as welfare recipients. Welfare reform is not an
explicitly racial issue, but one that disproportionately affects
low-income African Americans. Depending on their incentives and
ideologies, organizations can choose to either emphasize the racial
significance of reform, or to substantially ignore the issue. In this
paper, I examine the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People's and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee's activities concerning the Economic Opportunity Act (EOA) in 1964 and 1965. A comparison of the incentives
responsible for this representation illustrates the importance of
internal organizational structure, growth, and inter-group competition to an organization's decision to prioritize anti-poverty policy and the representation of the poor.

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 11799 words || 
3. Anderson, Kevin. "Sitting In to Stand Up: Ideologyand the Creation of SNCC" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This project examines the ideological foundation of the
mass movement activities organized and carried out by the Student
Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The creation of the
organization will be analyzed within the context of African American
political thought and this paper will seek to understand how the
ideological discussions among African Americans during the civil rights
era informed the strategic actions taken by the student activists of
SNCC. The ideology and strategies of southern resistance will also be
analyzed as will the ideological plans of other civil rights era groups
such as the NAACP and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) in order to provide context to the activities of SNCC. These
discussions will help illuminate the necessity of understanding the
complex and multiple perspectives on racism, inequality, and political
empowerment that informed ideological discussions during the civil
rights era and continue to influence African American politics

2009 - 94th Annual Convention Words: 190 words || 
4. Benson II, Richard D.. "Casualties of the Movement: Philanthropic Interests, Financially Factoring SNCC's Decline, and the Six Day War of 1967" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 94th Annual Convention, Hilton Cincinnati Netherland Plaza, Cincinnati, Ohio, Sep 30, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many historians attribute the declination of the Black Freedom Movement of the 1960s to a combination of urban rebellion and expressions of Black Nationalism that became crystallized in the 1966 call for "Black Power". A significant aspect of the era of the mid to late 1960's that deserves critical analysis deals with the philanthropic sources of organizations that professed to work for the interests of the masses of Black people. This work examines not only the funding sources for many of the more influential Civil Rights organizations, but it also explores the resulting out comes for those organizations that sided with or against: militant and self-determinative action of Black Power, anti-Vietnam War activity and also anti Israeli/pro Palestinian sentiment of the 1967 Six Day War. Addressing these issues in the context of the movement will aid in broadening the socio-historic scope of the intentions/issues around funding. In addition, this work will assist in explicating the financial relationships of those organizations that obtained more national visibility as a result of certain associations, versus the systematic efforts to financially silence and dismantle other groups deemed less favorable.

2017 - Oral History Association Annual Meeting Words: 200 words || 
5. Crosby, Emilye. "Finding and Grappling with SNCC’s Lesbian/ Gay History" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Oral History Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Minneapolis, Minneapolis, MN, <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: As I began doing oral histories for a project on women and gender in SNCC (the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee), SNCC veterans began volunteering snippets of the organization’s early gay/ lesbian history, including stories about gay/ lesbian individuals and ways that their sexual identity intersected with the organization and the movement. Most (though not all) of this was previously invisible and, as I learned more, the new information expanded, and in some cases shifted, my understanding of familiar events and opened up new directions for research. This paper will address the gay/ lesbian content I have learned and explore the process of using oral history and archival sources to investigate a history that was explicitly hidden and previously understood as threatening. The attitudes of SNCC’s members and allies about gay/ lesbian identity appear to have ranged from quiet acceptance to teasing or ridicule and while issues of gender and feminism emerged explicitly within SNCC as an organization, the engagement with gay sexuality appears to have been minimal and conversations about it limited. Societal shifts in attitude and laws have contributed to unearthing this history, but simultaneously makes it more challenging to recover and analyze people’s memories of events and attitudes.

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