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2014 - ISTR 11th Annual Conference Words: 605 words || 
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1. Wijkstrom, Filip. "The Re-hybridization of Society: The Case of Swedish Civil Society" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISTR 11th Annual Conference, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany, <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p709741_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Any kind of theorizing on organizational hybridity or institutional blurring demands an analytical model where different types of organizations (or sectors) are recognized and distinguishable. The model we need for this kind of analytical work on hybridity must be equipped with at least two sectors or organizational categories, but there are virtually no limits on how many we can have. The deciding factor here is instead what kind of theoretical considerations we can identify behind the current model of society. Without any kind of "pure", "original" or "standard" set of organizational ideal-type categories, sectors or spheres to depart from, it is however impossible to talk about any kind of institutional mixes or hybrid constructs.
This kind of thinking demands a model in which we can distinguish one set of organizational "imperatives" or "genes" or "roots" from other such sets that could be mixed, merged or combined, if we keep playing with the metaphorical use of hybridity. Not until these "genetic" organizational patterns (and I would here rather prefer to talk about "sets of core organizational attributes") are mapped and identified with a certain logic or rationale (for example at sector or sphere level) can we in any meaningful sense analytically talk about hybrids or mixes between the categories. For this we need an analytical model laying out the basic understanding of the relationship between different institutional spheres in society that the argument rests on. The main argument in my discussion builds on a tradition of authors, such as, for example, Cohen and Arato (1992), Scholte (2002), Salamon et al. (2003) or Lindblom (2003), who use a theoretical model of society consisting of a number of spheres inhabited by more or less distinct sets of actors, where civil society is assumed to be one of the categories or spheres. These analytical spheres as well as the organizations populating them are ideal-types and therefore utopian – to use Weber’s terminology. The four-sphere model is an analytical and theoretical model, and not an empirical representation of reality. Thus, the state sphere is populated by government agencies concerned with the formal task of "running the state". The sphere of trade and industry ("the business world") consists of commercial firms and corporations ideal-typically concerned with the making of economic profit. Family constellations and friendship networks concerned with the (re)production of genuine relationships make up the household sphere of private relations. The sphere of civil society, finally, is populated by the voluntary or nonprofit organizations. In this model they are primarily concerned with the production and maintenance of values or ideals in society, as indicated already in the introduction, and this can be facilitated through the provision of voice as well as through the production of service (Wijkström 2011).
The distinctiveness of each sphere is thus analytically grounded in the rationale or logic (organizational roots) that informs and guides its actors, rather than in the nature of the arenas where these actors interact. This means among other things that the (theoretical) distinction between civil society and the state or governmental sphere turns out to be sharper and clearer than in most other accounts, in which civil society is often seen as distinct from something vaguely called "the political sphere", and therefore also as barred from (or alternatively incapable of agency in) the political arena. In the paper the usefulness of this model for the analysis of the dynamics of hybridization is illustrated by a discussion of the transformations that the Nordic civil societies and their organizations are currently undergoing. I argue that these transformations should be understood as part of an ongoing process of re-hybridization, rather than increased hybridization per se.

2015 - ASEEES Convention Words: 224 words || 
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2. Pavlovska-Hilaiel, Sabina. "Constructing Actors in post-Communist Societies: The EU’s Role in Shaping Civil Society" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEEES Convention, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Nov 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1012441_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Why is civil society in some post-communist countries more equipped to effectively participate in the national decision making process than in others? What is the role of international entities, such as the EU in shaping domestic non-state actors? This paper starts from the assumption that in contrast to Western countries, in the late 1980s and early 1990s post-communist countries did not have organic civil societies with an established role and domestic position. The paper analyzes the post-communist development of civil society in Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Georgia and emphasizes the role of the EU in this process.

The paper shows two major findings: First, where the EU engaged civil society in a political dialog out of the context of conditionality and from the beginning of the transitions it shaped civil society into an actor that is depoliticized, capable of organizing around an agenda and thus effectively participates in the decision making process. Second, the paper differs from scholarly literature which examines EU’s attempts at socialization of post-communist countries as only shaping domestic actors. Instead, it claims that where an early process of socialization occurs, it also alters the preferences of the EU. In sum, the paper shows how both civil society in the post-communist world and EU’ country specific preferences are constantly evolving based on continuous interaction.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 161 words || 
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3. Bhatta, Chandra. "Amorphous Mass and Polymorphous Power - Role of Civil Society in Regime Change: The Case of Nepalese Civil Society" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p253533_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Civil society in Nepal has played a crucial role in search of peace in the country. In 1990 civil society helped to overthrow party-less Panchayat system and during People's movement of 2006 to overthrow the royal regime and subsequently brought Maoist rebels to the political mainstream. This paper analyses the role and functions of civil society in effecting regime change for democratic peace and challenge it faces in establishing sustainable peace in a weak state setting like Nepal. The central argument would be that civil society organisations have always played a crucial role in regime change which was largely due to positive actions of civil society, political society and international community. However, after the central aim of regime change is accomplished, civil society has not been effective to institutionalise democratic peace in the country. This is because Nepalese civil society is driven by the perception of interest and divided on partisan line with one foot in civil society and another out.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 237 words || 
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4. Sun, Taiyi. "Perceptions of civil society organizations in rural China: the skeptical society" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Sep 01, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1125617_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: It is often the conception that civil society’s major challenge in an authoritarian country like China would be from the state. The state’s interference in the public sphere would inhibit the development of autonomous, independent civil society organizations (CSO) as well as the accumulation of social capital within the society. It has been argued that the state constantly makes attempts to blur the line of the public sphere. This paper provides a different and complementary perspective by looking at how individuals in the society view CSOs. Using data collected from 43 counties in rural Sichuan province in China with 1200 surveys, and dozens of in-depth interviews, this paper reveals that the challenge from the bottom up with the skeptical individuals blurring the line between the private sphere and the public sphere is just as important as the challenge from above. Individuals prefer the government over CSOs to solve their problems and deliver services when facing injustices and difficulties, even for those who distrust the government and have an unfavorable view of the government. The extensive survey and interview notes reveal that “limited interactions between individuals and CSOs”, “mismatch of policy criteria”, “constraints over CSOs by the state”, and “lack of civility (norms of behaviors and personal interactions)” are major reasons why individuals are skeptical of CSOs. Therefore, great transformations of local communities through civic education is necessary for creating a nascent civil society in rural China.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 250 words || 
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5. Zhang, Youyi. and Yao, Ying. "Civil Society in Fragmented Societies: Analysis of Non-Burman CSOs in Myanmar" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Sep 01, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1127315_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is a growing literature on civil society in ethnic divided states, and scholars debate whether civil society organizations (CSOs) increase or decrease ethnic fragmentation, particularly in periods of political changes. In this article we ask how autocrats manage ethnic minority CSOs: are autocrats more likely to give space for ethnic minority CSOs as they pose less challenges to autocratic rule than majority group CSOs with broader support, or they are harsher to ethnic minority CSOs, so as to maintain national unification and appease rising nationalism from dominant groups?

To answer this question, this article starts with the Myanmar case. In recent years, the non-Burman CSOs in government-controlled region have emerged yet remained understudied. This article begins with an introduction to current development stage of non-Burman CSOs, then compares Myanmar government’s attitude towards non-Burman CSOs and Burman CSOs both before and after the launch of political liberalization in 2010. In particular, we focus on Myanmar government’s attitude towards non-Burman CSOs in the following areas: number and size, geographical distribution, access to funding from co-ethnics and international organizations, as well as issue areas allowed to cover. Moreover, rather than regarding Myanmar government as an unitary actor, we examine subnational variations in local governments policies towards non-Burman CSOs.

The main argument in the article is that autocrats concerns over state-building and regime security shape their concerns over ethnic minority CSOs. This article ends with discussion on possible generalization into other competitive authoritarian, multi-ethnic states in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia and Malaysia.

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