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2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 250 words || 
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1. Zhang, Youyi. and Yao, Ying. "Civil Society in Fragmented Societies: Analysis of Non-Burman CSOs in Myanmar" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Sep 01, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1127315_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is a growing literature on civil society in ethnic divided states, and scholars debate whether civil society organizations (CSOs) increase or decrease ethnic fragmentation, particularly in periods of political changes. In this article we ask how autocrats manage ethnic minority CSOs: are autocrats more likely to give space for ethnic minority CSOs as they pose less challenges to autocratic rule than majority group CSOs with broader support, or they are harsher to ethnic minority CSOs, so as to maintain national unification and appease rising nationalism from dominant groups?

To answer this question, this article starts with the Myanmar case. In recent years, the non-Burman CSOs in government-controlled region have emerged yet remained understudied. This article begins with an introduction to current development stage of non-Burman CSOs, then compares Myanmar government’s attitude towards non-Burman CSOs and Burman CSOs both before and after the launch of political liberalization in 2010. In particular, we focus on Myanmar government’s attitude towards non-Burman CSOs in the following areas: number and size, geographical distribution, access to funding from co-ethnics and international organizations, as well as issue areas allowed to cover. Moreover, rather than regarding Myanmar government as an unitary actor, we examine subnational variations in local governments policies towards non-Burman CSOs.

The main argument in the article is that autocrats concerns over state-building and regime security shape their concerns over ethnic minority CSOs. This article ends with discussion on possible generalization into other competitive authoritarian, multi-ethnic states in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia and Malaysia.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 28 pages || Words: 12481 words || 
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2. Mueller, Milton., Kuerbis, Brenden. and Pagé, Christiane. "Democratizing Global Communication? Global Civil Society and the Campaign for Communication Rights in the Information Society, TOP THREE PAPER" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p169991_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The institutions for the realization of democracy are national in scope, but communications industries and information flows have become increasingly transnational. In this paper we consider the implications of promoting the ideas of transnational “civil society” and “multi-stakeholder governance” as default solutions to the problem of democratizing international institutions. Specifically, we critically examine the case of the Campaign for Communication Rights in the Information Society (the CRIS Campaign) during the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). We find the CRIS Campaign’s struggle to shape global norms by mobilizing civil society actors, instructive on several levels. First, it reflects a long-term attempt to formulate and apply an overarching frame that puts the social role of communication at the center of policy development. Our analysis suggests that this effort was not that successful -- but the attempt nevertheless holds important lessons for communication scholars interested in the relationship between communication studies and public policy. Second, it provides insights on theories of transnational advocacy networks (TANs) and how those relate to the specific domain of communication policy. The case study also tests theories about the relationship between TANs and international organizations, revealing the interdependence of the needs of international institutions for legitimacy and participation and the needs and incentives of advocacy groups. Last but not least, the results reveal the strengths and weaknesses of multi-stakeholder governance, and raise important questions about institutional changes at the international level motivated by this default solution.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 248 words || 
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3. Amstutz, Marc. "The Society of Society in Legal Reasoning" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p181806_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The rules of legal reasoning in civil law systems are aiming at hindering courts to move away from the Code. This aim has a very specific function: It supports the impression that courts apply strictly the values laid down by politics and nurtures the illusion that the democratic principle of power separation is working. Yet, it has often been shown that the rules of legal reasoning do not operate in the way intended: They function as ex post legitimation of judicial decisions and not as ex ante disciplining tools of judicial behaviour. By forcing the courts to focus on the internal structures of the legal system, they have had an unintended effect: They have brought about a cognitive closure of the system making it blind for the Luhmannian “society of society”. This blindness ends up in serious failures of the system to cope with social evolution. The issue is in which di-rection we are to rethink the rules of legal reasoning. From a systems theory perspec-tive, the job of these rules must be to strike a balance between variety and redundancy within the legal system. This is to say that rules of legal reasoning have to regulate how much “society of society” has to be “let in” into the legal system so as to secure a so-cietally adequate law. How such new design of the rules of legal reasoning can be achieved will be shown in my paper whith the help of the systems theory concept of morphogenesis.

2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 55 pages || Words: 13989 words || 
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4. Wampler, Brian. "Grafting participatory governance onto representative democracy and existing state institutions: Explaining outcomes via political society and civil society lenses" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p278631_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Abstract: Participatory institutions are riding a wave of theoretical and empirical attention as researchers, scholars, activists, and government officials seek to better understand how (and if) the direct incorporation of citizens into policymaking processes helps to overcome perceived deficiencies of actual, existing representative democracy. Participatory institutions are almost always grafted onto existing state institutions and representative democratic institutions; they are nestled into the space that links civil society, political society, and the state, which makes it necessary to draw from a broad range of theoretical approaches to best understand their impact. This paper develops a theoretical framework to better account for why some participatory institutions fail, why some are considered successful, and why many produce both positive and negative outcomes. The theoretical framework developed in this article is anchored in three analytical areas to better account for variations in the quality of participatory governance institutions: (a) Capacity of state and civil society to carry out functions that give support to participatory processes; (b) intervening institutions’ affect on participatory processes; (c) the individuals’ interests and strategic choices within participatory institutions.

2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Pages: 50 pages || Words: 17543 words || 
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5. Clarke, Gerard. "Real Civil Societies: The Anatomy of Civil Society in the Philippines" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p414864_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A number of existing sources provide insights into the structure and dynamics of civil society in industrial, transitional and developing countries, including the John Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (Salamon et al. 1999, 2004), the CIVICUS G

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