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2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 886 words || 
1. Okhidoi, Otgonjargal. "Title: Measuring socioeconomic status in inferential analyses of (in)equality in the context of developing countries: Six-scale socioeconomic index" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-10-17 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objectives and statement of problem
Ways to measure the level of in(equality) in education has been explored, tested and revised since the middle of the twentieth century. It is then that researchers started conducting empirical studies to show how one’s social origin influences an individual’s status attainment (including educational attainment). Status attainment studies, the core of which contemplate on whether the educational expansion, i.e., increase in the participation give a chance to all groups in a society (including the poor) or whether it perpetuates the advantage for a certain groups in the society only, pioneered in 1960s and gained a momentum in 1980s in the western hemisphere. They have become an indispensable research area in sociology of education and maintain their legitimacy as of today. However, status attainment study, the role of education in social stratification in the context of post-socialist nations and developing countries is still scarce.

One of the reasons of the scarcity of empirical evidence in status attainment in the context of developing countries is a lack of availability of probabilistic, representative data that can be used for such analyses. While addressing the overarching research question “to what extent does socioeconomic status influence access to higher education in post-socialist Mongolia”, this paper presents an innovative way of overcoming such obstacle by using World Bank’s Household Socio-Economic Survey data in studies that explore equality (or inequality) in access to higher education. Specifically, the paper demonstrates the creation of a Six-Scale Socioeconomic Status Composite variable as an index for socioeconomic status of individuals – the key explanatory variable - in examinations of its effect on access to higher education.

Perspectives/theoretical framework
The key theoretical framework of this study stems from the notion of equity (Elaine Unterhalter, 2009) as taking consideration of differences in individual’s background and how equity should be grasped as economic, social and cultural forms of capital when it is discussed in the context of education. Moreover, the study relies significantly, in its attempt of theorizing the importance of equity in access to higher education, on Amartuya Sen’s (1992) capability approach where he contemplates two separate aspects in judging one’s social status: his/her actual achievement (what he managed to achieve), and the freedom to achieve (the real opportunity he has had to accomplish what he values).

Research methods and data
This is a quantitative study that utilizes statistical procedures, including descriptive analyses, logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models. I use nationally representative (probabilistic) cross-sectional data from the Household Social and Economic Survey of 2010 – 2011 in Mongolia, conducted jointly by the World Bank and the Statistics Office of Mongolia (hereafter HSES2011). Multi-stage stratified random sampling method was applied in administering the Survey. It used three strata. In total, 11,172 households were selected to participate in the survey, in the result of which, 45,510 individuals of all ages were surveyed.

As mentioned above, the innovative aspect of this study is the composition of the Six-Scale Socioeconomic Status Composite variable (SES) as the key explanatory variable. The SES was composed out of these sub-categories:
1. Household Income
• Total annual household salary income
• Total annual household livestock income
• Total annual household cropping/horticulture income
• Total annual household enterprise income
2. Highest parental educational attainment
3. Highest parental occupation prestige index
The paper will describe the processes and procedures of how the SES was composed with detailed metrics necessary.

Results and or substantiated conclusions
In brief, socioeconomic status (SES) significantly predicts access to higher education in Mongolia. After controlling for gender, age, marital status, household size, location of origin, for every standardized unit increase in SES, an individual is around two times more likely to attend higher education. Gender, household size, and location of origin have statistically significant relations with access to higher education. Females are almost twice more likely to attend higher education than males. Locations of origin matter as well.

Ten different socioeconomic status (SES) levels were examined further in regard with their influence on access to higher education. In overall, categorized SES levels significantly predicted access to higher education. Especially, individuals in the top two highest SES levels (well above average) were about 3 times and 5 times more likely to attend college than those in the lowest level. Furthermore, even individuals with ‘average’ SES (group 5) were 50% more likely to attend college than those in the lowest group.

Scholarly significance, originality and creativity of the study
This study demonstrates, with great detail, how Household surveys (which area available in most countries due to the efforts of the World Bank to conduct them) with household as a unit of analysis can be utilized effectively for educational studies with in(equality) as a focus of the inquiry. It is hoped that this approach provides a great significance especially in contexts where the availability of alternative nationally representative data is limited. Moreover, this study is significant due to its innovative approach in creating a comprehensive index to represent the socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals, an approach that improves the validity and reliability of existing empirical studies. Needless to say, this is the first empirical analyses that used Household Social and Economic Survey data in higher education research in Mongolia. This is also the first study that constructed a composite SES variable for educational attainment analyses. It is hoped that this study will make a significant contribution to the existing scholarly literature in inequality in post-socialist countries as well as developing nations.

2018 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 10864 words || 
2. Pinchak, Nicolo. and Swisher, Raymond. "School Socioeconomic Segregation, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center & Philadelphia Marriott, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 09, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-17 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study examines the relationship between school socioeconomic composition (SEC), family socioeconomic status (measured as parents’ education), and violence in adolescence and the transition to adulthood. Results show that a notable portion of the variance in the propensity for violence exists between schools. For lower and middle parental education respondents, school SEC is not related to violence in adolescence or the transition to adulthood. Compared with their peers in high SEC schools, high parental education respondents attending low and middle SEC school display higher odds of violent perpetration in adolescence. For those who attended low SEC schools, this association is additionally observed in the transition to adulthood. Associations between other school-level characteristics and violence are found to vary by parental education. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed within the context of the frog-pond framework.

2011 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7125 words || 
3. Baker, Elizabeth. "Family of Origin Socioeconomic Status, Own Emerging Socioeconomic Status and BMI by Generation for Mexican-Americans" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, Aug 19, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-17 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Past research has consistently found that among adults, first generation immigrants tend to be thinner than their second and third generation counterparts. However, among young children, children of immigrants have the greatest risk of obesity compared to children of natives (Van Hook and Baker, 2010; Van Hook, Baker, and Altman, 2009). This suggests that as young adults the second generation may be especially susceptible to developing obesity. As the second generation moves into adulthood they develop more autonomy and hence exert more decision-making about their diet and leisure time activities. The contexts in which these children find themselves could have important implications for their weight status. Using wave 12 of the NLSY 1997, I examine two important contexts family of origin socioeconomic status and emerging adult sociopeconomic status by generation for Mexican-Americans and compare their pattern to the one found for third generation whites and blacks. I find that family of origin socioeconomic status has only a moderate negative effect on young adult BMI after controlling for own emerging socioeconomic status and that this effect is only found for third generation whites. However, own emerging socioeconomic status appears important for all groups, especially second generation Mexican-Americans.

2011 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 8683 words || 
4. Wickrama, K.A.S.., Simons, Leslie. and Baltimore, Diana. "Early Socioeconomic Adversity and Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, Aug 20, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-17 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Previous research has documented that early disadvantages lay the groundwork for persistence of socioeconomic adversity across the life course and across generations. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain this phenomenon but little is known about how the different aspects of socioeconomic adversity emphasized by these models uniquely influence the socioeconomic attainment of young adults. We address this issue using longitudinal, prospective data and census data. Results from multilevel regression analyses indicate that African Americans, youth from poor communities, and lower SES families have achieved significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality in their young adulthood. Young adults’ education level partially buffered the negative influence of these factors as well as accentuated the positive influences of family resources. The present study demonstrates the intergenerational continuity of socioeconomic adversity.

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