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2008 - International Communication Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 7531 words || 
1. Bracken, Cheryl., Pettey, Gary., Rubenking, Bridget. and Guha, Trupti. "Sounding Out Small Screens and Presence: The Impact of Screen Size, Pace, and Sound" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 21, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The number of small and mobile screen being used for entertainment is growing daily. This paper presents the findings of a series of studies exploring the impact of smaller video format, specifically the Apple iPod, on audience responses. Two experiments were conducted with participants being exposed to one of two presentations on either an iPod or on a 32-inch television. Participants saw either a 10-minute fast-paced (multiple cut) action sequence or a 10-minute slow-paced (long cut) conversation sequence from a feature length motion picture. The two experiments each had a 2 x 2 design examining differences in immersion, spatial presence and social realism dimensions of presence. While previous research suggests that larger format presentations should generally result in higher levels of presence, experiment one found that subjects viewing the iPod reported higher levels of immersion. In experiment two, participants reported higher levels of spatial presence and social realism. The results suggest that sound merits further investigation and arguably should be included in all experiments with audio/visual stimuli. Implications are discussed.

2016 - LRA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
2. Roberts, Theresa. and Vadasy, Patricia. "Teaching the Alphabet to English Learner and English Fluent Preschool Children: Letter Names, Letter Sounds, or Letter Names +Letter Sounds?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA Annual Conference, OMNI Nashville, Nashville, Tennessee, Nov 29, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-16 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2017 - BEA Words: 352 words || 
3. Boara, Shaughna. "Sound Design and the Mind: The Listener's Reception of Sound" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BEA, Westgate Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas, NV, <Not Available>. 2019-11-16 <>
Publication Type: General Paper Submission
Abstract: This research will assess the varied reactions to sonic environments from everyday noise to sound design to discover how and why people react inconsistently to sound. In Noise: A Human History of Sound and Listening, David Hendy reflects that he “was struck by the horror that sometimes lurks in silence and by the warm humanity that often emanates from noise” (vii). This broad definition of noise or perhaps sound is the focus of this work. Hendy equates emotion and reactions with noise. It is this range of reaction to sound that is the focus of my work. While professionals in the industry mimic reality with sound design, this managed sonic space is not guaranteed to ring true with all listeners, let along evoke the same emotional reaction. The study of radio and television broadcasting has dominated the study of sound and listening (Douglas, Hilmes, Lacey, Acland, Dubber, Hendy, Cohen, Stamm) thus mass media have been a primary focus of research in the field. Music and sound design are wedded in this human need for sound in much of the research. Broadcasting flooded homes and collective listening changed the home and the boundaries between sound and silence.
Contemporary society, however, is more indicative of the boundaries that people can now create between the sounds they select and those in the public soundscape. Headphones that were more commonplace for close listening and professional work historically, now are part of the everyday worlds of people selecting their own sounds or ‘cancelling’ the sounds of the outside world. Just as triple pane windows close off homes from the outside world so do many person devices that are an extension of the human (McLuhan 56).
This research will employ interviews and focus groups with everyday people and sound professionals to understand their experiences of sound to draw on their reactions to and experiences of sound as a foundation for a critical analysis of sound design and sonic environments or sonic analysis as opposed to the typical visual analysis. This study will focus on radio broadcasting as an experience of sound.

2013 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 414 words || 
4. Jelly-Schapiro, Joshua. "Sound Nation Empire: Emory Cook's Sounds of Our Times" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Washington, Washington, DC, Nov 21, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-11-16 <>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the post-war U.S.A., few figures were as crucial to changing how we listen to music—and understand recorded sound—as Emory Cook. A Navy radar engineer who, from his home-laboratory in a Connecticutt garage, became a key inventor of stereophonic sound, Cook also helped to create, through his record company, Cook Labs/Sounds of Our Times, telling new consumer-appetites. By the 1950s end, the “high-fidelity craze” that Cook helped spur didn’t merely forge the economies of scale needed to make "home hi-fis” a part of many Americans’ lives. It also midwifed the emergence of a new social type—the audiophile—and fostered the advent of “live” records and the stereo LP. As a developer of high end audio equipment, and then as a maker of albums designed to evince his ideas about how best to use it—his releases ranged from records of bullfrogs in a pond to choral singing-Cook was crucial to shaping the political economy of sound in the United States. But this is only part of what fascinates about a life through whose contours, I argue, one can trace much about the larger social history of a hemisphere wherein any American Studies worth the name studies the lineaments and undoings of American Empire as well.

In this paper, I consider Cook’s story through the lens of his activities on the Caribbean island where he founded his record labels’ sole overseas office: Trinidad. Enthralled by the challenge of capturing Trinidad’s great carnival musics—and especially the island’s great steelbands—Cook opened an outpost in Port of Spain, with local partners, in the mid-50s. Just as he did so, Trinidad’s long-building movement for independence from both Britain (which had ruled the island as a crown colony for centuries), and the U.S.A. (whose Navy base had dominated island affairs since the war) was reaching a climax. In Trinidad, Cook succeeded in waxing the iconic records of the island’s new national music, played on instruments evolved from the literal detritus of Yankee might: old oil drums from the U.S. Naval Base. In so doing, and by insisting on his principle that a phonographer should capture not “pure sounds,” but spaces (Cook recorded all his great steelband LPs live on on the carnival street) Cook’s records became top-sellers in Port of Spain. Drawing on fresh interviews with his collaborators in Port of Spain, this paper recounts how Cook’s records played a key role in forging in the “nation space” of a newly sovereign country, and considers how Cook’s story—and records—still resonate today.

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