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2006 - International Studies Association Words: 79 words || 
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1. Akinsanya, Adeoye. ""South-South" Multinationals in Less-Developed Countries and "South-South" Relations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p98287_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Proponents of direct foreign investments have argued, almost to a fault, that multinationsl from the developed market economies are the "engines" of development in the less-developed countries of the "South". This claim has been disputed by critics who argue that DME-based multinations have, in general, contributed to he underdevelopment of LDCs, with all its implications for "North-South" relations. this paper therefore examines the roles of multinations from the Newly-Industrializing Countries of the "South" and their implications for "South-South" relations.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 289 words || 
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2. White, Lyal. "The India, Brazil, South Africa Alliance: A Sensible Alternative to South-South Cooperation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p251817_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The world is no longer divided along the neatly defined poles of ideology and development. With growing discontent around the results of economic globalisation there is a resurgence of South-South cooperation and a need to develop an alternative to the current orthodoxy that shapes the global agenda and the international political economy at large. But the response from the South is far from united. Despite a common need to address inequalities and unacceptable levels of poverty, countries are divided on basic approaches to achieve the ambitious outcomes required. These are compounded by ideological differences and power struggles of influence, which have traditionally hampered progressive South-South dialogue in the past. The India, Brazil, South Africa (IBSA) alliance is different. With common goals and objectives, and a coherent agenda, IBSA proposes a feasible plan to address some of the most pressing issues in the developing world by integrating the South, engaging the developed north and effectively using multilateral fora to truly benefit the marginalised masses in developing countries. IBSA proposes greater coherence and dialogue toward tangible economic and developmental outcomes as opposed to the ideologically loaded rhetoric that tends to dominate other (and previous) alliances of the South – united in what they are against, but vague on feasible alternatives for progress forward. This paper will explore the role of IBSA - and its priorities - in shaping the new and emerging economic order from the South. IBSA forms the hard core of developing countries that is carving out a new path for economic development for less developed countries and seeks to integrate the majority of less developed countries that have been largely excluded from the formal global economic systems. This approach of engagement and targeted development programmes will be discussed.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 739 words || 
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3. Sun, Yi. "From North-South to South-South— Opportunities and challenges in human resource development and talent sustainability" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1214345_index.html>
Publication Type: Roundtable Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: I. Conceptual Framework:
Human talent is a key economic resource and a source of creative power in science, technology, business, arts and culture and other activities; the term knowledge economy was coined in the 1960s and popularized by Peter Drucker in his book The Age of Discontinuity to describe a shift from traditional economies to ones where the production and use of knowledge are key to nations’ long-term development. Over the past several decades, human resource flows were commonly seen between countries in the global North and the global South. Yet, recent trends and progress in South-South cooperation (SSC) create a new trend in which developing countries such as China and South Africa also receive well-educated or skilled people from other developing and underdeveloped areas. Higher education institutions engaging in research and development are important mediator of such a system while the talent mobility has increased with multilevel cooperation such as academic exchanges among universities.


II. Objectives and main questions
This roundtable paper session is going to inform the trend of human resource development and sustainability through academic exchange and cooperation in the context of globalization. Potentially analyze the recent development of SSC from the perspective and the function of higher education. What is the role of higher education in human resources development? Is encouraging talent development and flows a strategic importance for countries’ development? And what are the opportunities and challenges of human resource development and talent sustainability in the discourse of South-South higher education cooperation?


III. Research methods, design and data sources
Comparative education theory, world-systems theory and modernization theories are applied to this study. Qualitative research methods such as semi-structured interview, questionnaires, and secondary research method by using content analysis are majorly employed.

Instrument: A case study of African students’ experience in a Chinese university is used to illustrate the trend of human resource development and flows from and between developing countries through higher education exchange and cooperation. A survey form and a questionnaire (i.e. question about “why”, “what” and “how”) are asked to fill out before the face-to-face interview. Based on interviewees’ initial collection of information from the forms, the interviewer develops conversation based on these initial responses.

Procedure: The face-to-face individual interviews include approximately 20 African students who currently study but majored and graded differently at Zhejiang Normal University in China. The questions to be addressed are related to their diverse social and educational backgrounds, learning motivations, plans after graduation, views towards human capacity building in their home countries and the current higher education cooperation between China and their home countries. The interview for each individual lasts 20 minutes. The consent forms are explained to and signed by the interviewees, and the recorded responses are transcribed into English if the interview language is either French or Chinese.


IV. Basic findings and conclusions
Current human resource development and talent flows in the global South such as the case between China and African countries show new trend and characteristics in higher education. More than half African students in this case study show strong intention to stay longer and explore job opportunities in China after graduation. African students see Chinese universities as new destinations for gaining social capital, gaining extra financial benefits, and developing personal capabilities to better prepare themselves to be successful on the global job market. Since fewer than half the interviewees showed any clear intention that they would be returning to their home countries once they had finished their studies, the social mobility brought up by a higher education exchange might cause a potential “brain drain” in many African countries. This finding may amplify other similar situations in the previous North-South relations, and now in the SSC.


V. Significance of the study
This study is significant as it sees human resource development and talent flows as the trend of globalization, as well as a proposal for all human development from social and cultural perspectives. Human capacity building should no longer rely on the traditional ideology that only higher education institutions in the global North have responsibility to cultivate human talents, where the ones in the global South should also engage themselves in the process as to balance and sustain human resource flows. In this case study, we may potentially find clues on human resource development among China and African countries in the current development of SSC. At the same time, evaluate the meaningful role of higher education in both contexts, and analyze opportunities and challenges they may face in the context of globalization.

2009 - ISA - ABRI JOINT INTERNATIONAL MEETING Pages: 57 pages || Words: 19762 words || 
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4. Carvalho, Pedro. and Potter, David. "Chinese and Japanese Development Cooperation: South-South, North-South, or What?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA - ABRI JOINT INTERNATIONAL MEETING, Pontifical Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro Campus (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Jul 22, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p380832_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper traces the evolution and characteristics of Chinese and Japanese aid since the beginning of their aid programs. It surveys their trends, patterns, and types of aid flows. The paper turns then to the implications of these donors’ aid policies for poverty reduction with special focus on Africa from both donor perspectives.
It argues that China and Japan aid programs share more similarities than dissimilarities. Moreover, both have a comparable aid strategy, which is not to concentrate on specific countries, as the objective is to have a balanced way of giving assistance.
This paper is based on a comparative assessment of China and Japan’s aid characteristics from 1950 to 2006. It seeks to clarify, on a global and regional context, particularly to Africa, some of the questions most recently discussed by scholars of the aid field: In what way are they different from each other and Western donors? Are they trying to contribute to new South-South cooperation and responding to the North’s hegemony in Africa? Do their development initiatives represent an adequate response for African governments against the traditional Northern development approaches?
While there is no direct confrontation between them in giving assistance, there is potential competition as both donors aid is an instrument of foreign policy to serve their interests.
Supporting Publications:
Supporting Document

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