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2016 - Texas Academy of Science Annual Meeting Words: 131 words || 
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1. Velo, Sarah. and Wood, Kathleen. "Differentiating Bell County snail species by identifying species-specific or genus-specific genomic differences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Texas Academy of Science Annual Meeting, Texas Tech University, Junction, TX, Mar 04, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1114077_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In 2013, a survey was conducted on snail populations in 19 different locations of Bell County, Texas. The previous survey reported over 20 species, while the most recent survey identified only 15 different macro-snail species. Of the species found, some are more difficult to distinguish by morphological features and could be more easily identified using DNA sequence information. DNA extraction was done on multiple snail species using both frozen and ethanol-preserved tissue, the latter samples providing significantly poorer quality DNA templates for sequencing. The genes sequenced were fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene (COI) and the 16S mtDNA, as well as the entire 18S rDNA. nBLAST analysis showed sequence similarity with other gastropods, however, results at this time are preliminary as to their usefulness in distinguishing species.

2009 - International Marine Conservation Congress Words: 249 words || 
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2. Rosaler, Jeffrey. "Using habitat as a proxy for species diversity and species richness in marine reserve site selection for rocky intertidal areas of Laguna Beach, California_new" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Marine Conservation Congress, George Madison University, Fairfax, Virginia, May 17, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p377151_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The annealing algorithm in MARXAN was used to build possible marine reserves by selecting the best of 26 heterogeneous rocky intertidal sites using various modeling parameters. Four surrogate data sets were used to design marine reserves; habitat, substrate, mobile species abundance and sessile species percent coverage. Habitat characteristics observed were; substrate type; formation type; slope; habitat heterogeneity; presence of microhabitats and wave exposure. Macro-algae and macro-invertebrate abundance and coverage were quantified for a 30 m2 area of each site. Variable by site Multi Dimensional Scaling showed similarities between surrogates and Conical Correspondence Analysis ordination displayed a significant correlation between substrate and species distribution. MARXAN was used to develop a network of sites for each biodiversity surrogate, conserving 10%, 30% and 50% of the input variables, while minimizing the sites chosen. Mean species richness and diversity were higher for reserves designed based on species assemblages than reserves designed based on habitat or substrate, but not significantly so. Habitat level surrogates would be an effective method to identify valuable intertidal areas as high priority sites for inclusion in a larger MPA network. Site irreplaceability analysis determined that several sites were chosen > 65% of the time for all annealing runs. The habitat at these sites suggests that two different types of intertidal produce unique species assemblages: low sloping boulder fields and large areas of bedrock bench. Given that different habitats produce diverse species assemblages, it would therefore be important to include representatives of multiple intertidal habitat variations in a reserve network.

2016 - Texas Academy of Science Annual Meeting Words: 196 words || 
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3. Velo, Sarah. and Wood, Kathleen. "Differentiating Bell County Snail Species by Identifying Species-Specific or Genus-Specific Genomic Differences in Rumina decollata" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Texas Academy of Science Annual Meeting, Texas Tech University, Junction, TX, Mar 04, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1114079_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Two separate snail species surveys were conducted in Bell County, Texas in 2003 and 2013, identifying between 15 and 20 different macro-snail species. Identifying these species by their morphological structures can be extremely difficult, and could be more easily done using DNA sequence information, although there is not a lot of DNA information in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. In order to accomplish differentiation of the species, PCR was completed with three different primer pair sets to amplify fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene (COI), the 16S mtDNA, and the 18S rDNA. PCR and sequencing was completed on a sample of Rumina decollata, a snail species that was imported to Bell County and is commonly found in this area. A DNA product was obtained from all three PCR’s, which were then sent off for sequencing and analyzed using nBLAST to determine if there were any similar sequences in the NCBI database. In the future, the sequences obtained will be pieced together to obtain an entire sequence for Rumina decollata. This information could aid in the future identification of other snail species by their genomes instead of by morphological features.

2008 - International Congress for Conservation Biology Words: 225 words || 
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4. Rudd, Murray. "A POST MORTEM ON THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA’S DECISION NOT TO LIST PORBEAGLE SHARK AS AN ENDANGERED SPECIES UNDER THE SPECIES AT RISK ACT (SARA)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress for Conservation Biology, Convention Center, Chattanooga, TN, Jul 10, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p239473_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: In Atlantic Canadian waters, the abundance of porbeagle shark is estimated to be 12-15% of its pre-1961 unfished level. Despite the steep decline in abundance and ongoing directed fishing, the Government of Canada in 2006 recommended not listing porbeagle shark as an endangered species under SARA. The decision was justified based on the economic costs of listing to industry and communities, and on the loss of information for government scientists. In this paper, I highlight a number of key shortcomings in these arguments: (1) lenient definitions of population ‘recovery’; (2) inadequate consideration of alternatives to fishery dependent data collection; (3) an over-emphasis on the direct economic costs of listing; and (4) an under-emphasis on the external costs imposed on Canadian society arising from ongoing exploitation of porbeagle shark. Arguments regarding the economic impacts of listing to the commercial sector were particularly weak as only two fishers in Atlantic Canada derived more than 25% of their gross fishing revenue from porbeagle shark landings. The porbeagle shark case provides a useful illustration of how quasi-economic arguments can be used to oppose the implementation of policies consistent with a precautionary approach to fisheries management. A balanced accounting of costs and benefits in Canada suggests that listing porbeagle shark as endangered under SARA would impose minimal costs on fishers and fishing communities, and may benefit society as a whole.

2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 12 pages || Words: 3160 words || 
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5. Berry, Bonnie. "Inter-species and Intra-species Appearance Bias: Social Learning, Interactionism, and Other Sociological Interpretations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p306972_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Following a study of human-human appearance bias, I here examine displays of discrimination by nonhumans against humans based on the humans’ facial features. It has recently been discovered that crows can distinguish between human faces, remember the faces of humans who have trapped and leg-banded them, express displeasure against humans whose faces are associated with these negative events, and communicate to other crows which humans deserve scolding. As to the latter point, crows not only respond as offended individuals to the sight of humans who have offended them, based on facial recognition; but crows who have not personally experienced offensive human behavior also exhibit a collective scolding response to humans, based, presumably, on social learning. Moreover, crows exhibit bias toward other crows depending on their physical features, precisely as do humans and for similar reasons: Crows, like humans, exclude or, conversely, seek out others in their species based on physical features such as body size, coloration, condition of bodily coverings (feathers, hair, etc.) as indicators of health, fecundity, and attractiveness. Relevant explanations for the phenomenon of nonhuman and human preference for particular physical features include symbolic interactionism, attribution, and dramaturgy. In general, intra-species and inter-species appearance bias likely operates in all species, with social learning and other sociological theories providing the probable explanations.

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