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2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 4064 words || 
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1. Chandrashekar, Santhosh. "When Hate Speech Hurts: Speech Code as a Strategy to Check Hate Speech" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, Nov 11, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p368808_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study makes a case for introducing speech codes on campuses in a bid to curb the growing incidence of hate speech. Tracing the historical differences between First Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment proponents and outlining the major arguments that both sides put forth in defense of their respective positions, this study argues that a speech code that meets certain conditions is a fair compromise between speech code opponents and proponents

2006 - XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies Words: 408 words || 
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2. Igarashi, Yosuke. and Mazuka, Reiko. "Speech rate in infant-directed speech in Japanese is NOT slower than adult-directed speech." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Westin Miyako, Kyoto, Japan, Jun 19, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p93990_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Abstract: Background and Aims: Infant-directed speech (ID) has specific prosodic characteristics that are distinct from adult-directed speech (AD). A slower speech rate is one such characteristic, and has often been assumed/claimed to be a universal property of ID.
In English, ID speech has been found to have shorter utterances and longer pauses than AD. Even after pauses are removed, the number of syllables uttered per unit of time has been found to be fewer in ID than AD. When function words and content words are separated, slower speech rates have been found only in content words. To test whether slower speech rate is a universal characteristic of ID, it is necessary to analyze ID from different languages. To date, however, data from other languages is limited. In this paper, we present data from Japanese ID. Japanese provides useful contrast to English since Japanese mothersÂ’ interaction with their infants and their ID speech have been reported to show distinct characteristics from American mothers.

Method: 22 Japanese mothers were brought to the laboratory, and their speech to their 18-24 month-old infants and to an adult experimenter was recorded. Approximately 40 minutes of recordings from each mother, totaling about 14 hours, were phonetically transcribed. From these data, (1) duration of utterances (defined as continuous speech separated by at least 200 msec of pauses), (2) duration of pauses, (3) number of syllables per second excluding pauses, were calculated.

Key Results: The duration of ID utterances was significantly shorter than AD utterances, and ID speech contained significantly more frequent and longer pauses than AD. These are consistent with English ID speech. The number of syllables per unit time was, however, no fewer in ID than AD. Approximately half of the 22 mothers had faster speech rate in AD, while the other half had a faster speech rate in ID. Morphological analysis of the data showed that ID contained significantly fewer case particles or other function words than AD. Thus, it was not the frequent occurrence of function words (with shorter syllables) in the ID speech that contributed to the faster speech rate.

Conclusions: Like other languages, ID speech in Japanese had shorter utterances and more pauses. But the actual speech rate of Japanese mothers, viz., how fast each syllable is articulated, was not any slower in ID than AD. The present data shows that the slower speech rate is NOT a universal characteristic of ID speech.

2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Pages: 13 pages || Words: 4340 words || 
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3. Carey, Allan. "The Speech of the King: An Examination of Speech and Deed in Thucydides’ Peloponnesian War as Understood Through the First Speech of King Archidamus" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 03, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p267130_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: To understand Thucydides one needs to consider the profound relationship between the author's narration and the speeches of characters. This paper examines that relationship in the first speech of King Archidamus and its subsequent implications.

2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Words: 345 words || 
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4. Boromisza-Habashi, David. "A Reconsideration of the Relationship Between Speech Communities and Speech Economies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1227114_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Traditional Hymesian ethnographies of communication treat the speech community as their principle unit of analysis. In recent years, the traditional use of the speech community construct has come under attack for a variety of reasons, including distracting analytic attention from how social actors constitute speech communities on their own terms and neglecting the flow of language, people, and ideas across local and global networks and the often partially coherent, temporary forms of language use those flows engender. I argue that ethnographic research can restore the descriptive and analytic force of the speech community construct by theorizing speech communities in relation to speech economies, and both as processes rather than autonomous, unchanging entities. Hymes introduced the concept of the speech economy to draw attention to the fact that, in spite of the rich potential variability of linguistic forms within the boundaries established by grammar, not all correct forms of expression were considered valuable in a speech community. He went on to argue that, in all speech communities, means of speech (locally available linguistic resources) were combined into valued styles in the process of use, and the totality of those styles constituted the speech economies of speech communities. I argue that, in the context of social networks and linguistic flows traversing linguistic and national boundaries, speech communities are no longer necessarily isomorphic with speech economies. Ethnographers must recognize and study the dynamic, historically contingent, mutually constitutive relationship between the two. I explore how the negotiation of value assigned to speech styles motivates the interaction between speech communities and speech economies. Drawing on existing ethnographies of communication and sociolinguistic studies I distinguish four types of value linguistic styles take on in the process of the interaction between speech communities and speech economies: moral value (produced when speakers distinguish right and wrong ways of speaking), esthetic value (produced when speakers evaluate linguistic styles on the basis of local esthetic standards), social value (produced when speakers draw on linguistic styles to express and manage social relations, including communal identities), and economic value (produced when group members acquire styles as commodities).

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