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2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Kornrich, Sabino. "Household Spending on Children across Four Countries: State Provision of Services and Inequality Private Spending?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1122421_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Evidence from the United States shows substantial inequalities in parental spending on children. This paper asks whether these inequalities exist in countries with greater public provision of education and child care. Using data from expenditure surveys from Australia, Norway, Spain, and the United States, the manuscript investigates parental spending across the income distribution on education, child care, and a range of goods for children. Descriptive results show higher inequalities along the income distribution in the United States than in each of the other countries. Regression results including control variables for a range of household characteristics show significantly higher inequality along the income distribution for child care and education in the United States compared to Norway. These results suggest that greater public provision reduce inequalities in private investments.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 8023 words || 
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2. Kim, HeeMin. and Ellis, Glynn. "Spending Effects on National Policy Moods: A Comparative Analysis of Military and Social Spending in Western Democracies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p209851_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Previous explanations of the causes of shifts in national policy mood, conceived of on a left-right dimension, have been mostly economic. In this paper, we attempt to move beyond economic factors affecting policy mood of the citizens in Western democracies. Specifically, we analyze the relationships between public policy moods and national economies, governmental ideology, previous public policy moods, and social and military spending. We further investigate how these relationships are conditioned/modified by the ideology of the incumbent governments. Our analysis includes 21 industrialized, well established democracies for the period of 1950 through 1998. We find that the national policy mood is negatively related to the current government ideology, confirming the “reaction hypothesis” primarily shown in American politics literature previously. We also conclude that improving (declining) national economy tends to cause a leftward (rightward) shift in policy mood. Additionally, the direction of this effect is influenced by the ideology of the incumbent government. Testing for our hypothesis that increasing social spending causes a rightward movement in national policy mood and a decrease in social spending sends policy mood to the left yields only “weak” support. Even so, we find no evidence that these influences are conditioned by government ideology. Conversely, we find strong evidence that an increase in military spending swings policy mood to the left, while a decrease moves it back to the right. And, as is the case with economic variables, military spending is conditioned by government ideology.

2018 - Comparative and International Education Society Conference Words: 318 words || 
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3. Ponce De Leon, Christian. "Public education in Mexico: Spending more, or spending better?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1357690_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: In Mexico, public expenditures on education as a share of GDP is one of the lowest when compared to other OECD countries. This has placed enormous pressure on the government to try to increase public funds for this purpose. International organizations and pundits alike have suggested that the government should follow through this recommendation. However, public expenditures on education as a share of total government expenditures is among the highest when compared to other OECD countries. This latter figure indicates that the government is placing an important effort to fund public education. Yet, when disaggregating the distribution of public expenditures on education by educational level (primary, secondary, tertiary), Mexico is investing a disproportional share of its educational budget on tertiary education, leaving aside fewer resources for primary and secondary education. Shall the government spend more or spend it more evenly among educational levels?

Trying to spend more and better in public education raises several normative questions regarding the burden of these additional resources. Who is supposed to pay for it? Is it politically feasible to increase taxes or to increase the public deficit to pursue this goal? Who will win and who will lose if the government suddenly redistributes public resources more evenly among educational levels?

This paper will first attempt to estimate the gap between an “optimal” and current levels of total public expenditures on education for the next 20 years. It will argue that completely closing the gap would mean either an unsustainable deficit or a politically infeasible increase in taxes. Likewise, redistributing public funds more equally among educational levels may prove to be politically challenging as well. For instance, cutting universities’ budgets to favor primary education would very likely result in a revolt. Finally, this paper will try to estimate whether it is possible to compensate those who will lose for more and better expenditures on public education.

2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 11661 words || 
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4. Primo, David. "Restrictive Rules, Restrained Spending: The Endogenous Enforcement of Spending Limits in Legislatures" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p59290_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using a distributive politics bargaining model that allows for pork-barrel (i.e., inefficient) projects, I demonstrate that legislatures tend to prefer open, or unrestricted, amendment rules on spending bills, while agenda setters prefer closed, or restrictive, rules. This result contrasts with Baron and Ferejohn’s (1989) seminal work on bargaining, which finds that closed rules are preferred both by the legislature as a whole and the proposer. The model is applied to the problem of legislative rule enforcement by tying the agenda setter’s adherence to a spending limit to the legislature’s granting of a closed rule on the proposal. I find that endogenous enforcement of a spending limit is possible if the voting rule is a simple majority (or close to it). This enforcement mechanism tends to fail for supermajority rules. The approach in this paper sheds new light on the design and enforcement of budget rules in legislatures.

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