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2018 - BEA Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Xu, Qingru., Fan, Minghui. and Brown, Kenon. "Men’s Sports or Women’s Sports? Gender Norms, Sports Participation, and Media Consumption as Predictors of the Perceptions of Gender-Appropriate Sports in China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BEA, Westgate Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas, NV, Apr 07, 2018 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1371642_index.html>
Publication Type: Open Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study aims to explore how sports are perceived based on gender norms in China. Applying social cognitive theory, a total of 423 Chinese respondents were surveyed about their gender perceptions of 16 selected sports. Results indicated that sports were categorized as masculine, action, neutral, and feminine, with clear distinctions, and men overall tended to rate sports as significantly more masculine than their female counterparts. Overall, gender role beliefs, sports participation, and sports media consumption all significantly correlated with individuals’ gender typing of sports. This research, based on previous research from Hardin and Greer (2009) is one of the first quantitative studies exploring sports gender perception in China, providing insights into the role gender norms play in shaping the country’s sports landscape. Theoretical and practical implications are offered.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 12 pages || Words: 3397 words || 
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2. Gordy, Laurie. "The Gendered World of Sports: An Analysis of Sports Illustrated for Women and Sports Illustrated" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p107481_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There has been increased media attention to women's sports over the past 5-10 years. No where is this more evident than with the creation of a magazine devoted to just women's sports -- Sports Illustrated for Women. Scholars assessing the presentation of female athletes by the media have generally concluded that the small amount of coverage given to female athletes has often been stereotypical and based on male athletic norms. Using content analysis of the feature stories in Sports Illustrated for Women and Sports Illustrated for the year 2001, this study explores how the gender of the intended audience shapes the definitions of sport, of athlete, and of female athlete. Sports is interpreted more broadly and a wide range of female athleticism is presented in Sports Illustrated for Women. However in Sports Illustrated, sports is interpreted more hierarchically, sports coverage is generally limited to the three major male professional sports (baseball, basketball, and football) and female athletes are included in very limited sports roles. To make it into the male world of sports coverage, female athletes have to be either in the gender appropriate and sexy sport of tennis or in the high audience drawing sport of basketball. Two very different realities of female athletes are constructed depending on the magazine one views. With the existence of the two sports magazines and the types of images presented in the magazines, the message is females can play whatever sport they want as long as they play in their own court.

2016 - ISAHP Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Jagun, Sikuade., Dixon-Ogbechi, Bolajoko. and Haran, Elizabeth. "USING AHP TO DETERMINE MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS DRIVING VOLUNTEERISM IN SPORTS: NIGERIA OLYMPIC SPORT FEDERATIONS EXPERIENCE" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISAHP, Hilton Paddington Hotel, London, UK, Aug 04, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1143829_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Most scholars are of the view that volunteers are individuals who willingly gave unpaid help, in the form of time, service or skills, through an organization or group. Despite this “consensus”, some other scholars observed that contrary to this view, in Nigeria, some of the sports volunteers always expect financial rewards for services rendered. Thus this study used the AHP model to determine the motivational factors driving volunteerism in sports in Nigeria by focusing on the Nigeria Olympic Sport Federations. It adopted the survey research method to study a sample of 14 out of the 23 Nigeria Sport Federations in different cities in Nigeria. Our findings revealed that sports volunteers are mostly motivated by altruistic value, love of the sports, rewards (financial, personal) and personal development (skill, career)

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