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2018 - BEA Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Xu, Qingru., Fan, Minghui. and Brown, Kenon. "Men’s Sports or Women’s Sports? Gender Norms, Sports Participation, and Media Consumption as Predictors of the Perceptions of Gender-Appropriate Sports in China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BEA, Westgate Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas, NV, Apr 07, 2018 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1371642_index.html>
Publication Type: Open Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study aims to explore how sports are perceived based on gender norms in China. Applying social cognitive theory, a total of 423 Chinese respondents were surveyed about their gender perceptions of 16 selected sports. Results indicated that sports were categorized as masculine, action, neutral, and feminine, with clear distinctions, and men overall tended to rate sports as significantly more masculine than their female counterparts. Overall, gender role beliefs, sports participation, and sports media consumption all significantly correlated with individuals’ gender typing of sports. This research, based on previous research from Hardin and Greer (2009) is one of the first quantitative studies exploring sports gender perception in China, providing insights into the role gender norms play in shaping the country’s sports landscape. Theoretical and practical implications are offered.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 12 pages || Words: 3397 words || 
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2. Gordy, Laurie. "The Gendered World of Sports: An Analysis of Sports Illustrated for Women and Sports Illustrated" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p107481_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There has been increased media attention to women's sports over the past 5-10 years. No where is this more evident than with the creation of a magazine devoted to just women's sports -- Sports Illustrated for Women. Scholars assessing the presentation of female athletes by the media have generally concluded that the small amount of coverage given to female athletes has often been stereotypical and based on male athletic norms. Using content analysis of the feature stories in Sports Illustrated for Women and Sports Illustrated for the year 2001, this study explores how the gender of the intended audience shapes the definitions of sport, of athlete, and of female athlete. Sports is interpreted more broadly and a wide range of female athleticism is presented in Sports Illustrated for Women. However in Sports Illustrated, sports is interpreted more hierarchically, sports coverage is generally limited to the three major male professional sports (baseball, basketball, and football) and female athletes are included in very limited sports roles. To make it into the male world of sports coverage, female athletes have to be either in the gender appropriate and sexy sport of tennis or in the high audience drawing sport of basketball. Two very different realities of female athletes are constructed depending on the magazine one views. With the existence of the two sports magazines and the types of images presented in the magazines, the message is females can play whatever sport they want as long as they play in their own court.

2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 8979 words || 
Info
3. Levy, Don. "Fantasy Sports and Fanship Habitus: Understanding the Process of Sport Consumption" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p21053_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Using Bourdieu's concepts of field and habitus, sport is conceptualized as an arena of change in which mutually interdependent agents interact affecting one another and the field itself. This research focuses on fans as one objective position in the field. In order to describe the habitus of fans developed in part through the consumptive process, one ardent group of fans is foregrounded, fantasy sport enthusiasts. Data from an online survey, participant observation and secondary data sources facilitate the construction of a theory of fanship habitus.

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