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2009 - Connecticut's Stem Cell Research International Symposium Words: 370 words || 
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1. Banda, Erin., Becker, Sandy., Naegele, Janice. and Grabel, Laura. "An Efficient Protocol for Generating Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) from Human Embryonic Stem Cells" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Connecticut's Stem Cell Research International Symposium, Omni Hotel, New Haven, CT, Mar 23, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p319011_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The ability to readily derive neural stem cells (NSCs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a necessary step in generation of transplant material for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Standard NSC derivation protocols utilize an embryoid body (EB) intermediate followed by extended culture, which can take from 30 to 60 days, to direct differentiation into neural progenitors. We have modified established neural differentiation protocols to produce a more direct and efficient method of generating enriched populations of NSCs. Our EB-free protocol utilizes Noggin, a BMP-antagonist and well known neural inducer, for directing differentiation of both H1 and H9 hESC lines toward a neural cell fate, while discouraging the development of non-neural cell types. On Day 0, cells are passaged manually onto a mitomycin-C treated mEF feeder layer into N2B27 neurobasal medium supplemented with Noggin and are maintained in this medium for 10 days. As the mEF feeder layer undergoes cell death, hES colonies expand both from their center and at points around their periphery, as individual cells take on a bipolar morphology. On D10, the cells are passaged manually onto laminin-coated substrates. Following the transition from feeder layer to laminin, the cell population undergoes massive cell death. By D12, a subset of the NSC population begins to assemble into immature rosettes; bipolar cells arranged radially, a structure frequently observed during ESC neurogenesis. At this stage, cells arranged in rosettes, as well as others in the surrounding monolayer, express the neural progenitor transcription factor Pax6, as well as the neural stem cell markers Musashi1 (Msi1) and Nestin. By D14, the rosettes have matured and individual cells take on a columnar morphology and robustly express Msi1 and Pax6. A subset of cells, beginning at D12 and peaking at D14, also express Forse1, a surface epitope expressed by progenitors with anterior CNS identity. Preliminary data also suggest that the midbrain marker Engrailed1 (En1) is expressed by a few cells within the rosette core, as well as a large number of cells surrounding the rosette, but is noticeably absent from the columnar cells of the rosettes. These data suggest the protocol can produce neural progenitors with broad regional specificities, a conclusion we are currently examining in more depth.

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 711 words || 
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2. Pritt, Amanda., Ozturk, Busra. and Buccella, Alyssa. "STEM education in CFC schools: A study on curriculum, resource availability, and interests in STEM fields among students and teachers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p709289_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Purpose: Schuster (2013) defines STEM education as a way to harness great potential to positively impact regional and national economies; therefore an issue of utmost importance to policy makers and funding organizations is how to recruit, train, and retain quality teachers in these fields. In recent years there has been a call for an implementation of STEM education into modern school curricula. This paper proposes to present a case study on Cambodia and the NGO called “Caring for Cambodia” through an evaluation of the current CFC school curriculum and how they implement STEM disciplines. This is needed to analyze how students in these schools are being educated to keep up with the advancements in the developed world in the areas of math and science. It is necessary to evaluate current STEM education in CFC schools to provide a framework for sustainable, successful STEM integration into all junior high and high schools to assist in making CFC’s educational practices more globally competitive and competent.

Theoretical Framework: With the first science lab opening in CFC schools in 2012, and another 12 planned for 2013-2014, CFC has taken crucial steps towards providing opportunities for their students in a STEM education field. With further emphasis placed on, and investments in science and mathematics, students will be able to take practical skills learned in the classroom or lab and apply those skills in their community and daily life. By adding to their stock of knowledge, students will acquire human capital and enhance their future productivity (Lewis, 1954). This study will determine how to best integrate STEM education practices so that students can reach their highest potential and implement what they have learned in their communities.

Research Design: In November 2013, a team of graduate researchers from Lehigh University’s College of Education will travel to Cambodia and collect data using a mixed methods approach. The research being carried out focuses on both the STEM curriculum as well as the attitudes towards its implementation. We will collect surveys from over 1000 students grades 7-12, and then a smaller group from this same sample will be selected by the principal of each school to take part in focus groups in order to collect more in-depth data. Teacher focus groups will be used to gather general and in-depth information about their educational background, and attitudes towards the curriculum that is currently in place and the resources that are available to them. We will also conduct individual interviews with the small sample of principals of CFC schools to gather information about their schools in regards to teacher development, school characteristics, school-wide parental involvement, and school resources.

Data Sources/ Expected Results: The sources of data will be math and science teachers, students, and administrators at Caring for Cambodia’s schools. We will present the results of the surveys and interviews at the CIES conference. Based on our sample data and statistical tests, we will draw conclusions about the current state of STEM education in CFC schools by comparing our results to international STEM education standards. We hope to see a relationship between achievement levels and interest in these specific fields of study. Also, we plan to determine whether there is a correlation between how students feel about their math and science curriculum and their interest in STEM related careers. Finally, we will analyze how teachers’ educational background and training influences their effectiveness in teaching STEM concepts.

Significance to the field of comparative or international education:
As STEM education continues to become a widely accepted global standard, it is important to assess how the implementation of its practices can be made more successful not only in developed countries but developing countries as well. Cambodia does not participate in either TIMMS or PISA, making international comparisons difficult. Our results may facilitate recognizing areas that can be strengthened and improved upon in CFC schools, making Cambodia more relevant on the international stage. This could potentially serve as a model for countries and other NGOs in a similar position, and is an important addition to the field of comparative and international education.


References:

Lewis, W. A. (1954). Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour.The manchester school, 22(2), 139-191.
Schuster, D. (2013). In pursuit of sustainable STEM certification programs. Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(4), 38-45.

2015 - Advocating for the Silenced: The Educators’ Vocation Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Shonia, Olga., De Lucia, Shirley., Sanders, Tobie., Creasap, Sally. and Smith, Teresa. "Global Education through Global Academy: Adding ‘I’ to ‘STEM’. Internationalization effort – a community partnership within STEM Initiative." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Advocating for the Silenced: The Educators’ Vocation, Hyatt Regency Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, Feb 13, 2015 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p750367_index.html>
Publication Type: Roundtable Format
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The outcomes of an on-going collaboration will be discussed, and instructional resources based on the conducted workshops will be shared. Presenters will include University faculty as well as the School principal representing both sides of the partnership.

2017 - Association of Teacher Educators Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Huling, Leslie. and Ortiz, Araceli. "Faculty Development Supporting STEM Education: The NASA STEM Educator Professional Development Collaborative" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, Orlando Caribe Royale, Orlando, Florida, Feb 10, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1169966_index.html>
Publication Type: Multiple Paper Format
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The interconnected global economy requires that STEM educators stay up-to-date on the latest developments in STEM content and in culturally relevant best pedagogical practices. This session features the many professional development opportunities and resources available to teacher educators through the NASA STEM Educator Professional Development Collaborative.

2017 - The 13th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 152 words || 
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5. Sunny, Cijy., McLinden, Daniel. and Maynard, Kathie. "Attitude and Persistence towards STEM: Broadening the Definition through the STEM Community Enabled Participatory Lens. Cijy E. Sunny, Educational Studies, University of Cincinnati" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The 13th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 17, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1239975_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The education community is challenged to minimize the exodus of students from Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Interests and attitudes toward STEM develop early in a student’s life and it is important that positive attitudes motivate students’ interest in STEM fields so they persist in their studies. Needed is a focus on the noncognitive skills as an adjunct to the focus on the technical skill development. The STEM community is diverse and includes educators, professionals (e.g., engineers), students, and their parents. Defining attitudes and persistence towards STEM needs to include these many and diverse perspectives. Concept mapping, a community based participatory method was implemented to conceptualize the attitude and persistence domain with input from all stakeholders. The resulting map visualized the personalized understanding, voices, and experiences of the STEM stakeholders. The map is the basis for further work to guide development of efforts to improve STEM enrollment and retention.

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