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2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 9612 words || 
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1. Kim, Kwangok. and Lowry, Dennis. "Developing a New Gender Role Stereotype Index for Television Advertising: Coding Stereotypical and Reverse-Stereotypical Portrayals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 24, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p168468_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The mass media continue to reinforce stereotypical gender roles. Few studies have conducted content analyses that effectively measure stereotypes in advertising other than using nominal level data. Accordingly, this study was designed to develop a new “Stereotype Index,” measuring at the ordinal level the extent to which an advertisement uses stereotypical images. The index was developed based upon a probability sample of prime-time U.S. television commercials during a sweeps month (November 4-December 1, 2004). The final sample included 845 advertisements and 1,062 central figures. Each advertisement received positive points for the use of stereotypes and negative points for the use of reverse- stereotypes in its content based on the Stereotype Index. The mean of each variable could subsequently be compared directly using parametric statistics rather than traditional chi-square analysis. Differences between nominal (categorical) and ordinal level data were examined. The new Stereotype Index enables researchers to make precise statistical comparisons among studies cross-culturally and longitudinally, something not possible before. Since science often is advanced by detecting and reporting changes in variables, not just static scores, this is an important contribution of the new Stereotype Index.

2019 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Dunn, Joshua. and McLaughlin, Bryan. "Identification with stereotyped social groups: Counter-stereotyped protagonists and stereotyped supporting casts influence on symbolic racism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Canada, Aug 07, 2019 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1555967_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While exposure to stereotyped minority characters reinforces prejudice, when viewers identify with counter-stereotyped characters prejudice tends to decrease. This study examines the juxtaposition of identifying with either a counter-stereotyped Black protagonist or a stereotyped supporting cast. Participants read a prompt (group vs. individual salience), watched a television episode, then reported their identification with the protagonist and the social group. Findings suggest that individual identification reduces prejudice, while social identification with a stereotyped group does not.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Hester, Rhonda. and McIntyre, Karen. "Effects of positive stereotypes of sexual minorities on news consumers’ attitudes and recognition of stereotypes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1104045_index.html>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This experiment tested the effects of positive and negative stereotypes of gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals in news stories on respondent attitudes, awareness of stereotypes, and affect. Exposure to positive stereotypes produced higher levels of positive affect, but respondents were less likely to recognize the presence of positive stereotypes. Exposure to positive stereotypes also resulted in less support for sexual minorities for one measure of behavioral intentions.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 4969 words || 
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4. Schneider, Andreas. "Stereotypes about Texans: Political Correctness and the Acceptance by the Stereotyped" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p108138_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Texans are often presented as self-righteousness, simple-minded, and big-mouthed individualists who by believing in law and order have their own way of authoritativeness. Part of the US Zeitgeist, stereotypes about Texans are politically correct and, therefore, largely unchallenged. Building identity and pride, this stereotype is often accepted by the stereotyped. This acceptance creates a two-edged stereotyping process that is so persuasive that even US academics are not spared. Empirical data is presented to investigate the stereotype about Texans while a native qualitative observation is used to gauge the impact on academe.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 4128 words || 
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5. Bos, Angela. "Stereotypes at the Gate? Institutional Rules, Stereotypes, and Candidate Nominations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 20, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p137706_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: I test whether legal and institutional rules that determine the role of political parties in candidate nomination (e.g., primaries or nominating conventions). I examine whether rules influence the context in which candidates are chosen, making gende

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