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2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 9612 words || 
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1. Kim, Kwangok. and Lowry, Dennis. "Developing a New Gender Role Stereotype Index for Television Advertising: Coding Stereotypical and Reverse-Stereotypical Portrayals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 24, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p168468_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The mass media continue to reinforce stereotypical gender roles. Few studies have conducted content analyses that effectively measure stereotypes in advertising other than using nominal level data. Accordingly, this study was designed to develop a new “Stereotype Index,” measuring at the ordinal level the extent to which an advertisement uses stereotypical images. The index was developed based upon a probability sample of prime-time U.S. television commercials during a sweeps month (November 4-December 1, 2004). The final sample included 845 advertisements and 1,062 central figures. Each advertisement received positive points for the use of stereotypes and negative points for the use of reverse- stereotypes in its content based on the Stereotype Index. The mean of each variable could subsequently be compared directly using parametric statistics rather than traditional chi-square analysis. Differences between nominal (categorical) and ordinal level data were examined. The new Stereotype Index enables researchers to make precise statistical comparisons among studies cross-culturally and longitudinally, something not possible before. Since science often is advanced by detecting and reporting changes in variables, not just static scores, this is an important contribution of the new Stereotype Index.

2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 198 words || 
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2. Najdowski, Cynthia. "There's Nothing Like a Man in Uniform: Cuing Stereotype Relevance and Triggering Stereotype Threat in African Americans" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p666831_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: African Americans, but not Whites, report being concerned that law enforcement officers will judge them unfairly because of the stereotype that depicts Blacks as criminals. Research has shown this is true when participants are asked how they feel in (a) police encounters in general (Najdowski & Goff, 2011), (b) a specific hypothetical police encounter they have been induced to imagine (Najdowski & Bottoms, 2012), and (c) a staged encounter with a White security officer (Najdowski, 2013). Further, this "stereotype threat" (Steele, 2010) translates into nonverbal behaviors that lead Blacks to be perceived as more nervous than Whites, regardless of whether contact with a police-type figure is investigatory or noninvestigatory (Najdowski, 2013). The present study extends prior work by testing the extent to which racial differences in stereotype threat and nervous behavior manifest depending on the identity of a White confederate who asks participants for directions. Results showed that Blacks' concern about being accused of doing something wrong translated into nervous behavior when the confederate was portrayed as a security officer, but not when he was portrayed as a civilian. These findings have implications for understanding, in part, why police target Blacks as suspects disproportionately more often than Whites.

2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8944 words || 
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3. Arendt, Florian. "Dose-Dependent Media Priming Effects of Stereotypic Newspaper Articles on Implicit and Explicit Stereotypes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 17, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p637007_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Current research draws a distinction between stereotype activation and application. Building on this differentiation, we present an implicit social cognition model of media priming: Whereas implicit stereotypes (i.e., automatically activated stereotypes) are the outcomes of associative processes, explicit stereotypes (i.e., overtly expressed judgments) represent the outcomes of propositional processes. We tested some of the model’s basic predictions in an experiment. We found that a Gaussian distribution function explained the explicit media priming effect (i.e., decay in effect size at very high dose-levels). However, a monotonic function explained the implicit media priming effect. This indicates that stereotypic content may impact implicit stereotypes even if the mass-mediated content is perceived as invalid. We discuss this finding regarding possible media-based reduction strategies.

2012 - BEA Words: 134 words || 
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4. Sauerbier, Rachel. "Reluctant Stereotypes: The Use and Reinforcements of Stereotypes on Social Networking Sites" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BEA, Las Vegas Hilton, Las Vegas, NV, <Not Available>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p545846_index.html>
Publication Type: General Paper Submission
Abstract: The use of social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace and Twitter have created a unique platform on which individuals can explore and reframe their identities. Numerous studies have cited examples how social networking sites facilitate "gender bending" and identity reconstruction within the relative safety of one's own home. Social networking sites, however, rely on limiting frames of gender, sex, sexuality and ethnic identity, often requiring its users to pick "one size fits all" categories, even if they are not truly representative of the individual picking them. Because of this, stereotypes of different sexual, gender or ethnic minority groups are perpetuated on social networking sites. This study explores how stereotypes on social networking sites are used for both identification and identity building and what the implications are for perpetuating said stereotypes.

2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 9319 words || 
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5. Sanders, Meghan. "Stereotype Content and the African American Viewer: An Examination of African Americans’ Stereotyped Perceptions of Fictional Media Characters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 21, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p297403_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: An extensive body of research has illustrated the various ways in which media can help form perceptions of various social groups. Theories such as cultivation, stereotype theory, social learning and social identity theory, all discuss how viewers can internalize and project what they see presented in media, to what they believe to exist in reality. But many of these theories pay less extensive attention to both negative and positive stereotypes, and perceptions of multiple social groups within the same context. Likewise, research ahs less frequently examined the perceptions of marginalized social groups held by African American media viewers. The present study examines the underlying dimensions of stereotype by applying to the stereotype content model (SCM), as it applies to African Americans’ perceptions of media representations of their own group and of other groups.

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