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2006 - XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies Words: 408 words || 
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1. Pahnke, Janna. and Pauen, Sabina. "Habituation to a Single Stimulus versus to a Stimulus Category: Testing the Comparator Model of Infant Information Processing" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Westin Miyako, Kyoto, Japan, Jun 19, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p94001_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Abstract: Background and Aims: Visual habituation and dishabituation responses are assumed to reflect information processing abilities in infancy. Following the comparator model based on Sokolov (1963), two factors - speed of processing and discriminatory memory - contribute to individual differences in infant cognition and to the continuity in cognitive functioning from infancy to later ages. Thus, individual differences in habituation performance are assumed to reflect differences in speed of processing (i.e. encoding the habituation stimulus and forming a mental representation), whereas differences in dishabituation responses indicate discriminatory memory abilities (i.e. detecting the mismatch between mental representation and test stimulus). While the comparator model has been empirically supported by visual recognition studies presenting one stimulus for habituation, its validity is less clear with respect to categorization studies in which different habituation stimuli of the same kind are presented. The aim of the present study was to compare habituation responses across these two tasks, testing the same infants.
Methods: Two visual habituation tasks involving abstract geometric stimuli were developed: In a single-stimulus task, infants were habituated to one black-and-white star-shaped pattern presented repeatedly before a new stimulus of the same kind was presented at test. In a categorization task, infants were habituated to different exemplars from a category of similar shaped and colored objects (e.g. angular red-and-orange) and tested with an object from a category differing in color and shape (e.g. round blue-and-green). In a modified infant-control design, N = 41 five-months-olds and N = 36 seven-months-olds were tested with both types of task (order of tasks counterbalanced).
Key Results: Infants showed great variance in total looking times as well as in strength of habituation and dishabituation responses. Total looking times were significantly correlated between both tasks (5 months: r=.42, p<.01; 7 months: r=.60, p<.01). About two thirds of all infants (66.2%) showed a consistent habituation response (yes, no) in both tasks. For the single-stimulus-task, strength of habituation and dishabituation were positively related (5 months: r=.24, p=.07; 7 months: r=.43, p<.01). Corresponding relations were not found for the categorization task, however.
Conclusions: The positive relations between looking behavior in both tasks indicate some intra-individual consistency in information processing over different types of visual fixation tasks. Relations between habituation and dishabituation responses were found only for the visual recognition but not for the categorization task, suggesting that the processing of categorical stimuli might differ from the processing of a single repeated stimulus. Implications of these findings with respect to comparator theory will be discussed.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 10495 words || 
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2. Cheah, Wai Hsien., Zimmerman, Rick. and Palmgreen, Philip. "Sensation Seeking, Individualism-Collectivism, Message Stimulus and Health Risk Messages: A Four-Country Study" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p11611_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study was an effort to understand how the personality trait of sensation seeking, the cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism (I-C), and message stimulus affect the risk perceptions of college students with regards to gonorrhea infection. The above was accomplished using a 2 (HSS vs. LSS) X 2 (physical threat vs. social threat) X 2 (individualism vs. collectivism at the cultural level) X 2 (within-subject pretest vs. post-test) mixed repeated measures design conducted in four countries – Malaysia, Singapore, U.S. and England. Of the 911 college students who participated in the prescreening phase of the study, a total of 700 students completed the experiment. The results showed that the collectivistic participants had greater increase in posttest scores for perceived severity, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge about gonorrhea than individualistic participants. LSS expressed greater condom self-control than HSS. Participants exposed to the physical appeal message seemed to be able to recall the information better than participants exposed to the social appeal message. Participants from individualistic societies expressed greater perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, condom interpersonal impact and condom self-control than participants from collectivistic societies. In addition, participants from individualistic societies seemed to be able to recall the information better than participants from collectivistic societies.

2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 28 pages || Words: 10496 words || 
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3. Norton, Matthew. "The Stimulus of a Hot Fortnight: Symbolic Rationality, Moral Mechanisms and Institutional Change in the Great Stink of London, 1858" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p242083_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: During the summer of 1858 the Thames began to stink in an extraordinary way. The stink catalyzed a strong public and legislative response that resulted in the transformation of London's municipal institutions. Prior to 'The Great Stink', London had no municipal body with effective executive authority over the entirety of the metropolis. 'The Great Stink' changed that, and resulted in a newly empowered Metropolitan Board of Works which was to play a dominant role in London public works and governance for the remainder of the 19th century. Leading social scientific theories of institutions and institutional change, however, do a poor job of accounting for the empirical details of institutional change during 'The Great Stink' episode. Institutional change during this period was driven by symbolic and moral considerations that the leading institutionalisms systematically ignore. The paper argues for hermeneutics as a key methodology and symbolic and moral factors as key zones of inquiry into institutions and processes of institutional change.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Words: 19 words || 
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4. Dexter, Bobby. "The Obama Administration's Stimulus Package" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p370658_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Discussion of the economic meltdown and various aspects of the stimulus package with an emphasis on the tax provisions

2014 - ISTR 11th Annual Conference Words: 544 words || 
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5. Gebele, Christoph., Lindenmeier, Jörg., Drevs, Florian. and Tscheulin, Dieter Kurt. "Joining the boycott? Effects of stimulus-induced negative affect and ethical evaluation on boycott intentions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISTR 11th Annual Conference, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany, Jul 22, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p709455_index.html>
Publication Type: Full Research Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In recent years, governments have come under pressure from their own citizens (e.g., Arab Spring or Occupy movement). Citizen protest movements and initiatives today target not only governments and states but multinational corporations and other entities. Consumer boycotts represent the most common type of citizen resistance and they can seriously damage corporate reputation and the bottom line. The Shell boycott and the Nestlé boycott illustrate such initiatives. Yet many boycott campaigns go unrecognized by the public and do not attain their goals. Hence the question arises, “What factors determine whether a call for boycott is successful?”.
Several papers investigate the topic of consumer boycotts as well as boycotting behavior and effectiveness. Sen et al. (2001), Klein et al. (2004), and Ettenson/Klein (2005) have, until now, published the most widely accepted theory-driven papers on consumer boycotting behavior. However, those studies do not consider essential aspects of individual inclination of joining consumer protest movement (e.g., consumer boycotts). According to Fridja (1986) and other researchers, emotions are an important driver of behavior, but Ettenson/Klein’s (2005) paper is the only one to consider emotional determinants of boycotting behavior, namely consumer animosity. Moreover, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study analyzes how individual appraisals of alleged unethical corporate conduct affect consumer boycott inclinations. Very few papers investigate the interplay between affective and cognitive constructs within the context of boycotting behavior. Klein et al. (2004) consider a construct called perceived egregiousness that comprises affective as well as cognitive elements within this context. Lindenmeier et al.’s (2012) study reveals that negative affect and disconfirmation of moral norms lead to consumer outrage and willingness to join boycotts. Grappi et al. (2013) explore consumer responses to irresponsible corporate behavior, including boycotting behavior and the role of moral emotions. But more research investigating the interaction of affective and cognitive determinants of consumer boycotting behavior is needed.
Our study uses a mediation model approach as the conceptual basis. We assume that consumers experience an initial affective reaction when confronted with calls for a boycott. In line with the social intuitionist model (Haidt, 2001 or Green/Haidt, 2002) this kind of affective appraisal of unethical corporate conduct takes place spontaneously, with no or minimal cognitive control.
We assume that two channels exist through which spontaneously-generated negative affects impact consumer boycott inclinations: First, and according to the standard theory of emotions (e.g., Fridja, 1986), negative affect may directly affect willingness to join a boycott: Stimulus-induced negative affect (IV)  DV: Boycott inclination (DV). Second, and confirming the cognitive mediation model (e.g., Eveland, 2001), stimulus-induced negative affect results in higher levels of activation, which may increase the individual motivation to process information. In line with this idea, we assume that negative affect is mediated by consumers’ ethical evaluation of alleged unethical corporate behavior: Stimulus-induced negative affect (IV)  Ethical evaluation (MV)  Boycott inclination (DV).
Against the background of our conceptual considerations, based on a quota sample of German citizens, and based on structural equations modeling as well as mediation analysis, our paper examines these research questions:
1. Do negative affect and ethical evaluation influence consumer inclinations to participate in consumer boycotts?
2. Does ethical evaluation mediate the effect of negative affect on the inclination to participate in consumer boycotts?
3. Do gender and preference for ethical products influence consumers’ decision-making process of whether to boycott?

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