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2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Shaffer, Jonathan. "Historically Structured Structuring Structures: Bourdieu’s Roots and Implications for Social Theory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 12, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2018-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1252605_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The construction of social theory is accomplished by people who are embedded in concrete, but complex webs of social, political, and economic relationships. Its roots appear especially problematic when we consider the gender, economic, geographic, and political backgrounds of the “fathers” of modern social theory. Ontologically and epistemologically, early sociologists tended to “reproduce the imperial gaze” by which empires operated, reproducing and reifying stereotypes and systems of power relations within and between social groups. Pierre Bourdieu’s approach to relational sociology has been heralded as a way to obliterate the antimonies and dichotomies that ontologically and epistemologically reproduce power relations through what he would call symbolic violence. In this paper, I seek to explore the classical theoretical roots of Pierre Bourdieu’s thinking, how those theoretical foundations came to inform his ontology of the social and his epistemological approach to social science, and finally I will assess Bourdieu’s potential to give us a “way out” of the colonial-epistemological bind.

2017 - 4S Annual Meeting Words: 288 words || 
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2. Metzl, Jonathan. "Using a Structural Competency Framework to Teach Structural Racism in Pre-Health Education" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston MA, Aug 30, 2017 <Not Available>. 2018-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1272682_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Racial disparities in health and healthcare are increasingly shown to reflect biases embedded in the U.S. healthcare system. This paper contributes to a growing body of literature that posits structural competency as a conceptual framework for bridging the gap between individual and institutional bias, or between what racism in medicine is and what it does. Structural competency calls on healthcare providers and students to recognize how institutions, markets, or healthcare delivery systems shape symptom presentations and to mobilize for correction of health and wealth inequalities in society.

To date, most structural competency interventions have targeted healthcare providers and medical students. Yet the inclusion of structural competency training in pre-health undergraduate programs may offer significant benefits to future healthcare professionals. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of an interdisciplinary pre-health curriculum based in structural competency with a traditional premedical curriculum. The author describes a new evaluation tool, the Structural Foundations of Health Survey (2016), developed to evaluate structural skills and sensibilities. The author uses the survey to evaluate two groups of graduating seniors at Vanderbilt University—majors in an interdisciplinary pre-health curriculum titled Medicine, Health, and Society (MHS), and premed science majors—as well as first-semester freshmen, with particular attention to understanding how structural factors shape health. Results suggest that MHS majors identified and analyzed relationships between structural factors and health outcomes and structural racism at higher rates and in deeper ways than did premed science majors and freshmen, and also demonstrated higher understanding of structural and implicit racism and health disparities. The skills that MHS students exhibited represent proficiencies increasingly stressed by the MCAT, the AAMC, and other educational bodies that emphasize how contextual factors shape expressions of health and illness.

2015 - DSI Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Crumbly, Jack., Cecere, Lora. and Carter, Lemuria. "The Evolution of Structured and Un-structured Data: What’s the Impact on Supply Chain Management?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the DSI Annual Meeting, Sheraton Seattle Hotel, Seattle, Washington, Nov 21, 2015 Online <PDF>. 2018-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1044583_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Big Data and analytics have the potential to transform supply processes. However, few

companies know how to harness this innovation successfully. In this study, we utilize New

Service Development Theory to identify challenges and opportunities associated with Big Data

and analytics. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Cross, Karie. "Structural Violence and Structural Intersectionality in Women's Peacebuilding" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Sep 01, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1122986_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: For more than sixty years, ethnic-based armed insurgencies and counterinsurgency efforts have plagued the Indian state of Manipur, situated east of Assam on the Burmese border. Much of the general scholarship on Manipur attempts to describe, understand, and offer solutions to this violence, and understandably so—such direct violence is easily visible and incredibly disruptive of daily life. This exclusive focus on direct violence, however, obscures women’s agency. If scholarship on Manipur’s violence mentions women at all, it often portrays them as passive victims. Feminist scholarship on Manipur rightly counters this tendency, portraying pictures of women’s subaltern agency in terms of everyday resistance and informal peacebuilding which responds to multiple types of violence—structural as well as direct. Although this scholarship does important work by making women’s agency visible, it tends to suffer from two weaknesses: it fails to interrogate the intersectional power differentials which mediate women’s ability to build peace, and it romanticizes women’s resistance, glorifying it as evidence of an agency which is inherently good.

My study of women’s peacebuilding practices in Manipur, based on ethnographic field research conducted in 2014 and 2015, employs Kimberlé Crenshaw’s under-used distinction between structural and political intersectionality and Saba Mahmood’s concept of agency to illuminate a fuller spectrum of women’s peacebuilding agency in Manipur than has been portrayed before. I use the concept of structural intersectionality to show that women positioned at different social locations, according to ethnicity, class, and religion, tend to experience violence differently, and hence to build peace differently. Then I use political intersectionality to show the ways in which women’s varied social locations create power hierarchies even among peacebuilders, who claim progressive inclusivity under the banner of human rights. The voices and the needs of Meiteis, the dominant ethnic group, tend to drown out those of Nagas and Kukis, the minority ethnic groups. Religious differences also play a role in sustaining hierarchies among peacebuilders.

My paper also contributes to the feminist debate on the meaning of women’s agency by pushing past Saba Mahmood to argue that even as agency should be understood as broader than the progressive ideal of resisting domination, it should also be evaluated according to its context. Women’s peacebuilding agency must be for something. Peacebuilding is inherently relational; the peace of one group depends greatly upon the peace of another. Therefore, agency is not inherently good if it is exercised by one subset of women, for one subset of women. As the tool of political intersectionality reveals, a peace built for just part of the population may undermine the possibility of a broader, more sustainable justpeace. If women do not push for a fully inclusive peace, then women’s peacebuilding ultimately fails.

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