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2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 714 words || 
1. Whitford, Heidi. and McCrink, Carmen Lourdes. "Social justice, student services, and the undocumented student experience in higher education: Perspectives of student affairs administrators" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objective/Purpose

This study, funded by the NASPA Foundation, explores the higher education pathways of undocumented students from the perspectives of student service personnel and student affairs administrators. Because Florida is a state that has a high population of immigrants, the study took place in Florida. Using a qualitative interview approach, the research aims to construct a theoretical model that reflects the transformative changes that have taken place within higher education institutions and within the professional practice of student services and student affairs departments as institutions respond to shifting student demographics. The position of undocumented students in higher education is an important facet of the globalization of higher education opportunity.
The research question that this study will pursue is twofold: First, how do higher education administrators perceive the influence of various laws and policies on the access to higher education opportunity for undocumented students? Second, how do higher education administrators describe the experience of working with undocumented students as these students navigate pathways to higher education? The sum of these experiences will be used to contribute to a theoretical framework of organizational learning underpinned by principles of social justice and diversity; such a framework was described by Smith and Parker (2005) to facilitate social change in organizations.

Conceptual Framework

According to Negy (2012), it is important to view the experience of undocumented students through multiple perspectives; Negy posited that a social justice framework is appropriate for this work, which aligns with the advocacy model of qualitative research as well as principles and ethical standards of student affairs practice (NASPA, 2013). Many institutions of higher education incorporate principles of social justice and diversity into their missions. Because social justice and diversity are also frequently invoked in the research literature pertaining to undocumented students, these two concepts intertwine to make a fitting conceptual framework for this research study.

Data Collection Procedures

Phase one of the research procedure involved a document collection and content analysis of legal and policy documents pertaining to higher education practices that affect the higher education opportunity of undocumented students. Based on this information, as well as information gained from analyzing the mission statements of the selected higher education institutions, the researchers embarked on the second phase of the data collection.
The second phase consisted of interviews with participants selected from various higher education institutions in Florida. Participants were purposively selected from among higher education administration positions that entail working with undocumented immigrant students, such as admissions officers, student services personnel, financial aid counselors, and other administrators who have experience working with undocumented students and who have knowledge of the laws and policies that might impact undocumented students. Fifteen interviews have currently been completed and have been digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using Nvivo data analysis software.


The study is currently 75% completed in terms of data collection, with a total of fifteen higher education administrators participating. Data collection began in January of 2014 and is expected to include a total of 20 interviews by January of 2015. Therefore, findings are expected to be available for complete analysis by January/February of 2015. Preliminary themes from the initial data analysis indicate that student affairs administrators have struggled with lack of information regarding undocumented students’ legal status, and therefore have difficulties identifying and providing adequate services for these students. In addition, recent changes in state legislation in Florida have improved undocumented students’ access to higher education, but many are not taking advantage of these opportunities due to lack of information.


Within the higher education milieu, student affairs professionals are in a position to positively influence the development process of young adults by following principles of social justice, equality of opportunity, and advocacy for marginalized and underserved students. Due to the forces of globalization, the undocumented student population is increasing at U.S. higher education institutions. Thus, this research contributes further understanding to student affairs practitioners as they adapt to serve the needs of undocumented students. Building on the research of Gildersleeve and Ranero (2010), this research aims at discerning practitioner awareness through their perceptions of how their practice incorporates working with undocumented students. A central aim of the study is to discover how student services providers learn and adapt to the evolving needs of undocumented students, and by extension, how their respective institutions apply organizational learning to incorporate evolving student demographics.

2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 6211 words || 
2. Frisby, Brandi. "Instructor-Student and Student-Student Rapport in the Classroom" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 21, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between student-student rapport, instructor-student rapport, and classroom connectedness, perceived student participation, affective learning, and cognitive learning. Students (N= 232) reported on their perceptions of interpersonal interactions with instructors and peers. Results show that instructor rapport and classmate rapport were related to perceptions of classroom connectedness. Instructor rapport, student rapport, and classroom connectedness were positively related to participation. However, only instructor rapport emerged as significant predictor of participation, affective learning, and cognitive learning.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 442 words || 
3. Kim, Sujung., Kainuma, Naomi., Li, Wenyulin., Lee, Tsai-Chen., Zhang, Zidian., Segura, Alicia. and Gao, Shaojing. "“International” Students or “Internationalized” Students: Making and Unmaking of International Student Identities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: In this presentation, we will discuss first, the motivation to initiate this course at the administration level. Second, the transformational process how the undergraduate interns’ self-identities are shifted after their arrival on campus into “international students,” and how the undergraduate seminar course have guided them to reconstruct their own identities from international students to empowered critical intellectuals at the US university. Third, how the course graduate teaching assistants, who are serving as the course instructors, have changed their perception of undergraduate international students and the ways in which they empower themselves through the course.
In the existing  literature, international college students, who are enrolled in post-secondary institutions in English-spoken economically advanced countries, are mainly discussed as ‘educational consumers’ or ‘a source of revenue.’ In Rizvi (2006) and McCarthy’s (2015)  studies, international students are greatly interested in acquiring postsecondary certificates from economically advanced countries such as the U.S., Canada, and Australia. With their awareness of the high market value of college and university diploma especially of the top-tier colleges and universities of those English-spoken economically advanced countries, these students in the literature are mainly portrayed as self-entrepreneurs who utilize their study abroad as a crucial opportunity to accumulate their qualifications for their future employment and to sustain their class privileges or to move upwardly in the social-class  structures.
Building on the existing literature, our study especially pays attention to the shift of our own identity before and after our arrival at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In particular, we focus on how we are identified by the institution and how our participation in the undergraduate seminar for enriching international students’ academic and social lives at the US university as an course administrator, instructors, facilitators or interns affect the shift on our own perspectives on our social identities and higher education.
One of the key findings of our community autoethnographic writing is that many of the students are “already cosmopolitan, already international” before they came to study in the US. However, it was the moment when they arrived on campus that they were categorized as “international students” and subject to various campus policies, from visa to tuition fee to residential and language policies, etc. In this presentation, student presenters will share their experiences and reflections on these different aspects of being “internationalized” and “otherized.” We argue that the categorization of ‘international students’ functions as a label that posit us outsiders by denoting our differences that may or may not be at the core of our own perceptions of our identities. This in turn functions as somewhat otherizing us as exotic foreigners and segregating us as someone who needs to be integrated into the mainstream.

2018 - AAAL Annual Conference Words: 45 words || 
4. Morales, P Zitlali. and Saravia, Lydia. "Caring for Emergent Bilingual Students: The Practice of Cariño for Latinx Students in the U.S. and Indigenous Students in Guatemala" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAAL Annual Conference, Sheraton Grand Chicago, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Colloquium Paper
Abstract: We define cariño (care) as a teacher’s understanding of students’ sociopolitical realities through a demonstrated love for students, evidenced through high academic expectations, and political advocacy. We provide two examples from bilingual classrooms, one in the U.S. and the second in a Latin American context.

2006 - American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Words: 266 words || 
5. Pruchnicki, Maria. and Beatty, Stuart. "Use of Asynchronous Web-Based Discussion Board by Students to Enhance Student-to-Student Learning in a Distance Education Course." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California, USA, Jul 05, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Purpose: To enhance student-to-student learning by using a web-based asynchronous discussion board in a pathophysiology and therapeutics (P&T) course for post-B.S. Doctor of Pharmacy students.

Methods: Students in a cardiology P&T course, part of a required six-semester sequence, were offered an optional online discussion assignment. A set of 6 patient scenarios was posted for each of 3 disease state discussions (DSD): hypertension, thromboembolism, and heart failure (total=18). To receive credit for a DSD, students provided (at minimum) one therapeutic recommendation (REC) for a case, and one response (RESP) to another posted REC. Each REC and RESP was limited to 250 words. Faculty reviewed postings, but did not contribute to discussions. Extra-credit points earned contributed to course grades. Feedback on the assignment was solicited from all students in the course evaluation.

Results: Twenty-three students enrolled in the course, with 39.1% (n=9) participating in all 3 DSD; 73.9% (n=17) and 34.8% (n= 8) participated in 1 or 2 of the discussions, respectively. Students posted an average (SD) of 2.8 (1.9) REC and 2.4 (1.7) RESP per mini-case. Twelve follow-up questions for 10 postings were added by instructors after the extra-credit period. Only 50% (n=6) received further RESP. Twenty-one students completed course evaluations and 80.9% (n=17) read all/most of messages even if they did not participate in posting. Of all students, 80.9 % (n=17) agreed/strongly agreed that the format provided valuable learning opportunities.

Implications: Computer-mediated communication may be an under-used but effective method to encourage peer interaction and professional exchanges between pharmacy students.

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