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2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 296 words || 
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1. Denman, Brian. "Stupid is as stupid does? Placing too much emphasis on global university rankings and research quantums to determine quality" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1247962_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: It is erroneous to draw too many conclusions on global university rankings. Making a university’s reputation rest on the subjective judgement of senior academics and the over-reliance on interpreting and analysing secondary data from bibliometrics and peer assessments have created a culture of collegial sabotage, increased competition, and genuine mistrust with the academic community. Surely if universities are to service and thrive in the future with the advancement of knowledge as a primary objective, quality enhancement and not quality assurance sould be viewed as paramount.

This narrative is a critique of the practice of using subjective judgements of senior university personnel since the early 1990s to present the case for a global competition of international ranking exercises, outfits, and misuses. Newsweek’s Best Global Universities Rankings, the Times Supplement World University Rankings, and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities are analysed, including previsiouly-unused secondary data from institutions where Nobel Peace Laureates completed their terminal degrees for the purpose of determining if this alternate approach would change rankings. A caveat: since the presence of Nobel Laureates at the institutions result in the institutions receiving additional ‘ranking credit’, in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and economic sciences, this additional emolument is not recognised in this alternative approach. This research suggests that if performance based indicators were not used and/or misused in the rankings, conclusions may be skewed and misleading.

The analysis of global university rankings identifies issues of comparative education research in which the global can be seen as undermining the local and the development of a shift in focus of the individual academic from a trusted scholar whose primary purpose is to advance knowledge in the field to one who deals in questionable and perhaps aggrandizing marketing practices

2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 7039 words || 
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2. Appel, Markus. "A Story About a Stupid Person Can Make You Act Stupid (or Smart): Behavioral Assimilation (and Contrast) as Narrative Impact" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 20, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p299015_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Media products may activate or prime concepts and traits which have residual, often unintended influences on subsequent behavior. In theory, these media priming effects may be in line with the primed traits or concepts (assimilation) or the effects may be opposite to the primed traits or concepts (contrast). In an experimental study, participants (N = 81) read a story about a stupid soccer hooligan. This low intelligence prime was assumed to influence subsequent cognitive performance. As expected, participants who read the story without a special processing instruction performed worse in a knowledge test than a control group who read an unrelated text. Cognitive processing (default versus dissimilarity testing) moderated the impact of the hooligan story. The effects of prime intensity, self-activation, and transportation were further considered. Future inquiries with narratives as primes and contrast effects in media effects research are discussed.

2011 - International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition" Words: 192 words || 
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3. Recchia, Stefano. "It’s the Military, Stupid! Understanding U.S. Multilateralism for Humanitarian Interventions in Bosnia (1994-95) and Kosovo (1998-99)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition", Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, Mar 16, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p500896_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Why does the U.S. seek the endorsement of standing IOs, such as the UN or NATO, before launching humanitarian military interventions abroad that it could easily execute on its own? Research has found that U.S. military officials oppose military interventions when no traditional strategic interests are at stake. If force is used, military planners want to keep any deployment of American soldiers as short as possible. Consistent with these findings, I show that in the face of pressure to intervene for humanitarian purposes from other U.S. government agencies, notably the NSC and State Department, military leaders are among the strongest advocates of seeking a formal multilateral endorsement for the use of force. American military planners view a formal multilateral endorsement, obtained before the initiation of a military intervention, as highly desirable, because it allows the U.S. to “lock in” the support of foreign allies and partners and makes it much easier for foreign countries to subsequently contribute to post-war peacekeeping and stabilization. My findings are based on data from about forty semi-structured interviews with current and former senior U.S. government officials, as well as archival documents, contemporaneous newspaper reports, and personal memoirs.

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