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2012 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 12993 words || 
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1. Abu Bakar, Hassan. and Dilbeck, Keith. "Dissimilarity in Supervisor-Subordinate Relationships: An Assessment on Subordinate Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitment, and Perceived Subordinate Performance in Malaysia Organization" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton Phoenix Downtown, Phoenix, AZ, May 24, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p545499_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Drawing from the similarity-attraction theory, self-categorization theory and leader-member exchange theory, we investigated whether dyad member’s demographic similarity/dissimilarity would affect how supervisors and subordinates evaluate their relationships and organizational outcomes such as job satisfaction, affective commitment, in-role and extra-role performance in a Malaysia organization setting. Our analyses indicated that subordinate relationships rating, gender, ethnic, religion and age dissimilarity were found to correlate with affect, loyalty and professional respect dimensions. While in supervisor’s rating of relationships, gender, ethnicity, religion and age similarity/dissimilarity were found only to correlate with professional respect dimension. In addition gender, ethnicity, religion, age and organizational tenure similarity/dissimilarity were found to correlate with job satisfaction and extra-role performance. The implications of these findings on leader-member exchange and relational demography research are discussed in this article.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 45 pages || Words: 11069 words || 
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2. Gates, Denise. "Superior-Subordinate Dialogue Among African American, Caucasian American, and Latino/a American Subordinates: Benefits of Being Buddies with the Boss" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p15216_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study presented one of the salient themes which emerged from the lived experiences of the women and men during their reflections, as subordinates, on their dialogue with their supervisors. The findings indicated that the subordinates in this study categorized their relationships with their supervisors as friendships, non-friendships/professionals, or family. Subordinates who reported being friends with their bosses, most often Caucasian Americans, seemed also to indicate having more rewarding superior-subordinate interactions. These relationships with their bosses opened other doors for them in there respective companies. Subordinates seeking or being afforded only non-friend/professional relationships with their bosses seemed to enjoy fewer professional favors or privileges than their counterparts. African American women, more so than other groups, tended to reveal having only professional relationships with their supervisors. Additionally, Latino/a American subordinates often had friendships with their bosses but many maintained that the likelihood or the quality of these friendships varied across races. The subordinates in this study who reported to family members were Caucasian American, and they appeared to have more genuine and personal dialogue with their supervisors than other groups.

2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Words: 1 words || 
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3. Lichtman, Richard. "Subordination to Authority: Marx and Critical" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p374879_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript

2012 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 8420 words || 
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4. Yang, Song. and Wu, Jihong. "Tokenism in Chinese Work Organizations? Subordinate-Supervisor Gender Combination and Worker’s Organizational Commitment in China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Colorado Convention Center and Hyatt Regency, Denver, CO, Aug 16, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p561416_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using a unique dataset consisting of 343 pairs of supervisor-subordinate from various workplaces in China, this study investigates worker’s organizational commitment in Chinese organizations. The result supports the tokenism theory. In particular, women workers under women supervisors have the lowest organizational commitment, and their difference with the organizational commitment for workers, men or women, under men supervisors are statistically significant.

2012 - ISPP 35th Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 340 words || 
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5. Mentovich, Avital., Beattie, Peter. and Tyler, Tom. "The Power of Fair Procedures: The Effect of Fair Treatment on Subordinates’ Perceptions of Power and Hierarchy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 35th Annual Scientific Meeting, Mart Plaza, Chicago, IL, Jul 06, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p571062_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research in recent decades has documented far-reaching effects of having (or lacking) power with a host of psychologically and socially important consequences. Power has been assessed as either a structural potential (an objective capacity to control others’ valued outcomes) or a psychological state (a subjective sense of powerfulness or powerlessness). Relying on the premise that the subjective sense of power is merely a psychological extension of objective power relations, this work has neglected the question of how objective structural power relations are translated into a subjective sense of power. In this paper we show that procedural justice gives subordinates a sense of power without changing the objective power relations. Building upon the egalitarian and autonomy boosting properties of procedural fairness, we argue that when superiors treat subordinates fairly, when they give them voice, and when they show them respect, they facilitate a sense of power among subordinates and minimizes the perceived power differential between themselves and their subordinates. Conversely, when treated unfairly, subordinates feel their lack of power and perceive a greater power differential between themselves and their superiors. As a result, the same objective power relations can be perceived by subordinates as more or less hierarchical, partly as a function of the quality of the treatment they received from relevant authorities. In five studies we show that a) receiving fair treatment from superiors causes subordinates to feel that they have more power, that the authorities in questions have less power, and that the power differential between themselves and their superiors is smaller (studies one to five). b) The effect of procedural justice on perceptions of power occurs only in hierarchical relations. That is, when the structural relationship is equal in the first place, procedural justice has no impact on individuals’ perception of power and power differentials (studies one to three). And c) The effect of procedural justice on perceptions of power accounts for subsequent downstream consequences such as information processing (study four) and risk taking (study five). We end with the social psychological and organizational implications of these findings.

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