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2005 - American Association For Public Opinion Association Words: 299 words || 
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1. Ongena, Yfke. and Dijkstra, Wil. "Effects of suggestive and non-suggestive probing on different types of inadequate answers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association For Public Opinion Association, Fontainebleau Resort, Miami Beach, FL, <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p16830_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper/Poster Proposal
Abstract: In telephone interviews, respondents may follow the peripheral or the central route when processing survey questions. When respondents follow the peripheral route, they process the question with little attention, using only the question as a cue to answer, rather than response alternatives, as is usual in ordinary conversations. This conversational style of responding is likely to result in mismatch answers (answers not matching the required answering format). In case of the central route, respondents process the question quite thoughtfully and are likely to give adequate answers. However, mismatch answers may occur when questions are ambiguous or difficult (creating task uncertainty, i.e. difficulties in understanding the meaning of questions or creating state uncertainty, i.e. difficulties in retrieving relevant information). Mismatch answers necessitate the interviewer to probe in order to get scorable answers. Probes can be non-suggestive (offering more alternatives) or suggestive (offering one alternative). A non-suggestive probe forces the respondent to process the question more thoughtfully, yielding longer reaction times irrespective of the type of mismatch answer preceding the probe. However, for suggestive probes we expect differences related to the preceding mismatch answers. A suggestive probe after a conversational mismatch, leads respondents to continue following the peripheral route, using the suggestion as a cue. When a suggestive probe occurs after mismatch answers caused by task uncertainty, respondents are assumed to switch from their initial central route to the peripheral route. In both cases the reaction times will be short and the respondent is likely to accept the suggestion. However, after a mismatch answer caused by state uncertainty, respondents are likely to continue following the central route, not necessarily accepting suggestions. An experiment was conducted varying question wordings for difficulty, ambiguity and conversation-likeness. Interviewers were assigned to either a suggestive or non-suggestive probing condition. Reaction times were measured for all utterances.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 9198 words || 
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2. Schwarz, Andreas. "Covariation-Based Causal Attributions During Organizational Crises: Suggestions for Extending Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p170102_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper will focus on the explanation of stakeholder’s causal attributions during crises and their link with organizational reputation. The potential and applicability of attribution theory are by far not exhausted in order to understand how attributions arise and how they influence stakeholder’s perceptions of organizations in ongoing crises. A theoretical framework for explaining covariation-based causal inferences in attribution theory will be discussed and proposed for application in crisis communication research. On the basis of partially constructed crisis scenarios, basic assumptions of Kelley’s covariation principle (1967, 1973) will be explained and suggested for future empirical tests. The resulting framework possibly can be considered as complementary to Situational Crisis Communication Theory (Coombs & Holladay 1996, 2004). Thus, it can be discussed for inclusion into the model, subject to the condition that forthcoming studies provide sufficient empirical evidence. Such an extension could help to deepen our understanding of how crisis responsibility attributions emerge and how crisis managers can refine their strategies of communication with stakeholders during organizational crisis.

2006 - The Law and Society Association Words: 255 words || 
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3. Merz, Sarah., Miller, Monica., Summers, Alicia. and Brosh, Joanne. "Social Science Research Suggests that Legal Regulation of Adolescents’ Sexual Behavior Both Helps and Hurts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Jul 06, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p95687_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The legal system regulates many aspects of teenagers’ sexual behavior. Some laws are intended to protect teenagers, such as statutory rape laws punishing adults who engage in sexual activity with minors. However, these “protective” laws can also punish teens. For example, under statutory rape laws in some states, an 18-year-old could be prosecuted for having consensual sex with his 17-year-old girlfriend. Research suggests that punitive laws such as these may deter sexually active teens from seeking contraception and medical attention. Such laws may also harm teens who have children. Recently, a Nebraska man pled guilty to having sex with the teen he later legally married. If incarcerated, the teen will be left to raise their child without her husband.
In another example, most organizations require health professionals to report underage sexual activity to police. Research findings indicate that teens may resist telling health professionals about their sexual activity for fear of legal consequences. Some states also require parental notification when minors seek prescription contraceptives. The intent of these regulations is to prevent underage sexual activity. However, according to recent surveys, such laws may deter teenage girls from seeking birth control and other medical services (e.g., pap smears and STD testing).
In many cases, these legal actions serve to protect adolescents and punish the adults who take advantage of them. However, these same laws may also punish teenagers and create obstacles to obtaining proper health care. Further research is needed to fully explore the effects of such regulations.

2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 19 pages || Words: 5112 words || 
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4. Larsen-Price, Heather. "The Power of Suggestion: Signaling and Presidential Influence Over Policy Making in the Bureaucracy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p279312_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript

2008 - International Communication Association Pages: 1 pages || Words: 51 words || 
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5. Potter, Robert., Bolls, Paul., Koruth, Jacob., Wise, Kevin., Bailey, Rachel. and Lang, Annie. "Heart Rate Variability Analysis Suggests a Reinterpretation of Cardiac Responses During Media Messages" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 22, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p233542_index.html>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Abstract: Extended abstract uploaded

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