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2011 - ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 212 words || 
1. Schwar, Gerhard., Cakal, Huseyin. and Hewstone, Miles. "Supporting us, Supporting you: when the disadvantaged group supports the collective action by the out-group." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey, <Not Available>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Abstract: We tested a model where positive intergroup contact, quality of contact and dimensions of ingroup identification (salience and value) predicted collective action tendencies among university students in South Africa (Black South African =226). Using structural equation modelling, our data supported a model where quality of contact directly and positively predicted endorsement of collective action taken by the White outgroup via reduced perceived threat. Evidence was also found for the sedating negative effect of contact on collective action tendencies to favour the Black ingroup via threat. In line with earlier research, ingroup identification positively predicted collective action tendencies favouring Black ingroup both directly and indirectly via relative deprivation and threat. Surprisingly a similar but somehow smaller effect of ingroup identification on the endorsement of collective action taken by the White outgroup was present. We also tested for moderational effects of group boundaries. Perceived legitimacy of White economic and social superiority significantly moderated the contact-collective action path. When legitimacy was high, contact did not predict collective action but when it was low it did so strongly and significantly. Consistent with earlier theoretical work on collective action, the present study provided novel support for the role of perceived group boundaries in predicting collective action as well as negative effect of intergroup contact via threat.

2016 - Southwestern Social Science Association 97th Annual Meeting Words: 524 words || 
2. Williams, Kenneth. "Stereotype Switching (StSw) and switching Candidate Support: How the Obama campaign was able to switch non-supporters into supporters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Social Science Association 97th Annual Meeting, Paris and Bally’s Hotels, Las Vegas, Nevada, <Not Available>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Stereotype Switching (StSw) is when, because of a signal switch, a person of a particular skin color is able to use two different stereotypes that provides for two different attributes. Consider two stereotypes A and B, then StSw has the property that a subset of people can be ascribed more than one (both A and B) because of their skin color, and different stereotypes can ascribe different attributes to a person. Hence, it is possible to have, A = good and B = bad, and if a candidate is considered to be B he can attempt to switch to A. How does this switching occur? A person only has to change a physical signal (fashion or garbs, accent, hair, color of skin, etc.) where one signal is associated with A and the other associated with B. If successful and this candidate is able to switch from B to A then he will be able to
increase his support among those who perceived him as B or an inferior candidate.
I consider two stereotypes: one associated with black or African American males (AA) and
another associated with black African or black males from Africa (BA). The AA typical stereotype is low income, low education, high crime, while BA is a higher class or higher income, higher education, and lower crime than AA. Hence, a dark skinned male with black coarse hair but without any other signals
(no talking and no clothes) can have AA or BA associated with themselves. If this person were to wear African garbs and speak with an accent he would be ascribed properties associated with BA, and if he wore urban dress wear and spoke urban slang he would be ascribed AA and have those properties. In this situation if our dark skinned person were running for office in a district that is higher class than some African American district, then he would be better off wearing African garbs and speaking with a
foreign accent and be perceived as a higher class than the AA stereotype.
In terms of politics, I argue that although President Obama is our first African American
president, many people supported him because they perceived of him as a non-American or non-African American because of this StSw mechanism. The media covered President Obama not as an African American (like Jesse Jackson with roots in Chicago) but as a person who was not African American and maybe not American. News coverage focused on his father and family from Kenya, his white mother from Hawaii, and the birther issue which meant he was not even born in America. I contend that the Obama campaign was able to use this StSw mechanism so that for some people President Obama was treated like a foreigner or African (BA) more than he was treated as an American African American (AA). Hence, the campaign was about to muster support from people who would never support an American black or African American but could generate sufficient utility to vote for a dark skinned person perceived to be African or non-American. To test this I examined news coverage during the 2012
campaign, and present results from an experimental survey and an on-line experiment.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Priem, Jennifer. and Giles, Steven. "A Mixed-Method Approach to Understanding Supportive Interactions: Support Seekers’ Problem Disclosures and Support Provider Reactions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The goal of the study was to assess emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions of support providers when confronted with a distressed individual. Participants (n = 27) engaged with a distressed confederate, who either disclosed very little about the source of their distress (implicit disclosure) or gave all of the details (explicit disclosure). Quantitative results showed that individuals who received that explicit problem disclosure reported that the conversation was more stressful, but were also more likely to approach (i.e. provide support) than participants who received the implicit disclosure. Approximately half of the participants in the implicit disclosure condition approached. Theme analysis of conversation content showed that support providers engaged in all levels of verbal person-centeredness and tended to follow a script for support. Content also varied by disclosure condition, such that individuals in the implicit condition tended to look for nonverbal cues that support was desired and individuals in the explicit condition were more likely to engage in strategies to limit conversation.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
4. Zinsser, Katherine., Christensen, Claire. and Torres, Luz. "She’s supporting them, who’s supporting her? Preschool center-level social-emotional supports and teacher well-being" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Teacher emotional well-being and job satisfaction are crucial to student success. Poor teacher well-being can harm teacher-student relationships and classroom climate (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009; Zinsser et al., 2013), and lead teachers to leave the profession (Montgomery & Rupp, 2005). Upwards of a quarter of Head Start teachers report significant levels of depression (Whitaker, Becker, Herman, & Gooze, 2013), therefore additional research into supporting teachers and improving retention is critical. In the present study, we explore predictors of teacher depression, job dissatisfaction, perceptions of center climate, and perceptions of behavioral support. Center characteristics predict variance in classroom quality and emotional support (Karoly, Zellman, & Perlman, 2013; Zinsser et al., 2014) and likely also predict teacher well-being. Such results would support future center-level interventions.


The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), 2009 cohort provides a nationally representative sample of 120 Head Start centers including 370 classrooms. Teachers participating at Time 2 were 99.4% Female, 52% White, and on average had taught for 11.55 years (SD=7.27). Teachers reported job satisfaction (reversed), depression, perception of center climate, children’s behavior, and supports for challenging behaviors. Additionally teachers’ reports of their centers’ use of a social skills curriculum, mental health consultant on staff, and CSEFEL materials were aggregated into a Social-Emotional Supports (SESs) variable. Center directors reported the total number of lead teachers at their centers. Non-normal variables (Depression and Dissatisfaction) were transformed prior to analysis.
We used a Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM; Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002) framework to model the nesting of multiple teachers per center. Firstly, an unconditional model for each dependent variable was created. All variables were group-mean centered at Level 1 and grand-mean centered at Level 2, accounting for both Level-1 and Level-2 variance within the same variable. Sample weights were used; thus results are nationally representative.


Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were significant for all dependent variables (depression, job dissatisfaction, perception of center climate, and perception of support for handling child behavior; see Table 2). Thus some portion of the variance (12% to 37%) in each outcome can be explained by a teacher’s center membership. Final models showed teachers were less depressed in centers with more SESs. Teachers reported less job dissatisfaction if they perceived children’s behavior more positively (Level 1) and if centers implemented more SESs (Level 2). Centers’ implementation of SESs explains variance in teachers’ perceptions of climate between (Level 2) and within centers (Level 1). Interestingly teachers’ perceptions of supports for handling child behavior were not associated with perceptions of child behavior (Level 1), but were positively explained by SESs in centers. This variance was explained at Level 1 and Level 2 of the model. Finally, teacher perception of support was negatively associated with number of lead teachers.


Centers’ implementation of social-emotional supports is associated with lower teacher depression and job dissatisfaction, and improvements teachers’ perceptions of center climate and of student behavior. To retain and support quality early-childhood educators, centers must establish systems to support both teachers’ and students’ social-emotional well-being.

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