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2011 - ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 212 words || 
1. Schwar, Gerhard., Cakal, Huseyin. and Hewstone, Miles. "Supporting us, Supporting you: when the disadvantaged group supports the collective action by the out-group." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Abstract: We tested a model where positive intergroup contact, quality of contact and dimensions of ingroup identification (salience and value) predicted collective action tendencies among university students in South Africa (Black South African =226). Using structural equation modelling, our data supported a model where quality of contact directly and positively predicted endorsement of collective action taken by the White outgroup via reduced perceived threat. Evidence was also found for the sedating negative effect of contact on collective action tendencies to favour the Black ingroup via threat. In line with earlier research, ingroup identification positively predicted collective action tendencies favouring Black ingroup both directly and indirectly via relative deprivation and threat. Surprisingly a similar but somehow smaller effect of ingroup identification on the endorsement of collective action taken by the White outgroup was present. We also tested for moderational effects of group boundaries. Perceived legitimacy of White economic and social superiority significantly moderated the contact-collective action path. When legitimacy was high, contact did not predict collective action but when it was low it did so strongly and significantly. Consistent with earlier theoretical work on collective action, the present study provided novel support for the role of perceived group boundaries in predicting collective action as well as negative effect of intergroup contact via threat.

2016 - Southwestern Social Science Association 97th Annual Meeting Words: 524 words || 
2. Williams, Kenneth. "Stereotype Switching (StSw) and switching Candidate Support: How the Obama campaign was able to switch non-supporters into supporters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Social Science Association 97th Annual Meeting, Paris and Bally’s Hotels, Las Vegas, Nevada, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Stereotype Switching (StSw) is when, because of a signal switch, a person of a particular skin color is able to use two different stereotypes that provides for two different attributes. Consider two stereotypes A and B, then StSw has the property that a subset of people can be ascribed more than one (both A and B) because of their skin color, and different stereotypes can ascribe different attributes to a person. Hence, it is possible to have, A = good and B = bad, and if a candidate is considered to be B he can attempt to switch to A. How does this switching occur? A person only has to change a physical signal (fashion or garbs, accent, hair, color of skin, etc.) where one signal is associated with A and the other associated with B. If successful and this candidate is able to switch from B to A then he will be able to
increase his support among those who perceived him as B or an inferior candidate.
I consider two stereotypes: one associated with black or African American males (AA) and
another associated with black African or black males from Africa (BA). The AA typical stereotype is low income, low education, high crime, while BA is a higher class or higher income, higher education, and lower crime than AA. Hence, a dark skinned male with black coarse hair but without any other signals
(no talking and no clothes) can have AA or BA associated with themselves. If this person were to wear African garbs and speak with an accent he would be ascribed properties associated with BA, and if he wore urban dress wear and spoke urban slang he would be ascribed AA and have those properties. In this situation if our dark skinned person were running for office in a district that is higher class than some African American district, then he would be better off wearing African garbs and speaking with a
foreign accent and be perceived as a higher class than the AA stereotype.
In terms of politics, I argue that although President Obama is our first African American
president, many people supported him because they perceived of him as a non-American or non-African American because of this StSw mechanism. The media covered President Obama not as an African American (like Jesse Jackson with roots in Chicago) but as a person who was not African American and maybe not American. News coverage focused on his father and family from Kenya, his white mother from Hawaii, and the birther issue which meant he was not even born in America. I contend that the Obama campaign was able to use this StSw mechanism so that for some people President Obama was treated like a foreigner or African (BA) more than he was treated as an American African American (AA). Hence, the campaign was about to muster support from people who would never support an American black or African American but could generate sufficient utility to vote for a dark skinned person perceived to be African or non-American. To test this I examined news coverage during the 2012
campaign, and present results from an experimental survey and an on-line experiment.

2004 - American Association for Public Opinion Research Words: 161 words || 
3. Todorov, Alexander. and Mandisodza, Anesu. "Differences between prospective and retrospective support for the war with Iraq: How to transform a minority-supported policy into a majority-supported policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Pointe Hilton Tapatio Cliffs, Phoenix, Arizona, May 11, 2004 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Data from four nationally representative surveys show that retrospective support for the war with Iraq (May and August, 2003) is substantially larger than prospective support for the war (January and February, 2003). We explored which groups of respondents were most likely to shift their opinions over time. Further, in three experimental studies, we attempted to recreate these temporal effects by manipulating the context of the questions. As expected, the context of the questions affected the expressed support for the war. For example, at the end of May, when initial questions subtly framed the war as relatively quick, cheap, and painless in terms of American casualties, respondents were more likely to express support for the war and a number of specific unilateral policies. However, in September, when initial questions reminded respondents about the post-war situation, expressed support for the war was reduced. We observed similar effects by making different justifications for the war salient. The policy implications of the findings are discussed.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Words: 201 words || 
4. Kedrowicz, April. "Supporting the Supporters: Socialization, Support, and Organizational Membership in an AIDS Service Agency" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The volunteer workforce saves nonprofit organizations substantial sums of money each year while simultaneously contributing to goals of diverse social change organizations. Consequently, it is necessary to effectively manage, evaluate, and recognize volunteers’ efforts in order to reduce the likelihood of turnover. One key component of volunteer management is social support. Norms of support vary from one organization to the next, and thus are learned through socialization. New volunteers learn what is expected of them and also develop expectations of what life will be like in the organization. More specifically, they develop expectations about the support they will provide to the organization, and the support they, in turn, can expect to receive. These expectations of support, coupled with the reality of organizational life, can impact volunteer commitment to an organization. This study focuses on the role of socialization in the development of support expectations and support enactment at a small, social service, nonprofit, AIDS-related agency, finding that the expectations of and experiences with support, or the (mis)matching of the ideal, as developed through training, perceptions of the atmosphere, and observations of organizational norms, and the real (reality of support) as constructed through interaction, contributed to different membership experiences for volunteers.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
5. Priem, Jennifer. and Giles, Steven. "A Mixed-Method Approach to Understanding Supportive Interactions: Support Seekers’ Problem Disclosures and Support Provider Reactions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The goal of the study was to assess emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions of support providers when confronted with a distressed individual. Participants (n = 27) engaged with a distressed confederate, who either disclosed very little about the source of their distress (implicit disclosure) or gave all of the details (explicit disclosure). Quantitative results showed that individuals who received that explicit problem disclosure reported that the conversation was more stressful, but were also more likely to approach (i.e. provide support) than participants who received the implicit disclosure. Approximately half of the participants in the implicit disclosure condition approached. Theme analysis of conversation content showed that support providers engaged in all levels of verbal person-centeredness and tended to follow a script for support. Content also varied by disclosure condition, such that individuals in the implicit condition tended to look for nonverbal cues that support was desired and individuals in the explicit condition were more likely to engage in strategies to limit conversation.

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