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2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 13 pages || Words: 2858 words || 
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1. Song, Eun young. and Jang, YongSuk. "Learning Becomes Diversified: Intra-, Inter- and Supra-national Learning Effects from Airline Accidents" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p103942_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Existing literature on airline accidents has been limited to errors of workers (e.g. pilots and maintenance personnel) or a single firm's failure. On the contrary, this research focuses on learning from undesirable experiences and examines hypotheses: strength of Middleness, effect of alliance membership and the global safety guidelines using a sample of 3368 accidents of the non-US commercial airliners in the world, from 1945 to 2005.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Words: 249 words || 
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2. Tepe, Daniela. "Gramscian Hegemony, Supra-nationally Operating Civil Societal Actors, and Nuclear Non-Proliferation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p181187_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper suggests that the notion of hegemony as it is applied by neo-Gramscian scholars does not adequately account for the operating of civil societal actors on the international level. This shortcoming is due to: (a) a problematic adoption of the term and (b) a conceptualisation of an international civil society. In regard to (a) it is argued that the neo-Gramscians? usage of hegemony does not reflect the Gramscian usage of the term. By transferring hegemony to the international level in the way this has been done by the neo-Gramscians, the term loses its specific analytical value. The same holds true theoretically for the neo-Gramscian idea of an international civil society. It is impossible to think of such in a Gramscian sense as long as there is no international state with a monopoly of force. In regard to (b) it is argued that what has been conceptualised as an international civil society remains, to a crucial degree, national. That is, the national arena remains the central space for social and political struggles. In this paper, the influence of non-governmental actors on the Non-Proliferation regime serves as an empirical example. As the nation state remains the central focus point of civil societal actors Gramcsian analysis remains a helpful tool. In order to apply Gramscian analysis to civil societal actors that act on a supranational level it is argued here that a far more theoretically informed analysis is necessary in order to avoid losing the analytical value of the Gramscian terms.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 15 pages || Words: 4349 words || 
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3. Tamura, Setsuko. "Financial Structural Reform of the African Union: Challenge of Continental Integration in the Inter-governmental to Supra-state Transition" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p251143_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Since its creation in 2002, African Union (AU) has been making efforts to build its institutional identity and capability as the supreme authority of African continental integration. Nonetheless, under-development of supra-state instruments in its institutional structure has made the AU vulnerable to defense of sovereignty and national interests of the member states. For instance, the AU's poor policy implementation record is largely due to its budgetary deficit which is resulted from outstanding financial contributions from the member states. The AU's financial hardship may not appear to be remarkable since most of the AU member states are the highly indebted world poorest countries. However, this financial vicious correlation between the AU and its member states is partly attributed to absence of supra-state financing authority within the AU system. For instance, the European Union and some African regional organizations have supra-state financial sources, such as revenues from value added tax and the community levy, while the AU's financing schemes include only contributions from the member states and international donors. In order to solidify and enlarge its financial base, the AU has proposed alternative financing schemes that are relatively autonomous from the member states' political will and economic conditions. From this perspective, my research paper discusses the financial structural reform of the AU, identifying rules, norms and influential actors that have shaped the reform process so far. Indeed, the AU is at a watershed in the inter-governmental to supra-state evolution, and success of its financial structural reform will be a positive indication for deepening political and economic integration among African states.

2010 - Seventeenth International Conference of the Council for European Studies Pages: unavailable || Words: 6119 words || 
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4. Leslie, John. "Supra-National Institutions or Trust? Setting Standards for Cross-Border Provision of Services in the European Union and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relationship (CER)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Seventeenth International Conference of the Council for European Studies, Grand Plaza, Montreal, Canada, Apr 15, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p401095_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Observers make functioning supranational decision-making institutions an indicator of advanced regional integration. Because it has the most encompassing supranational institutions, they regard the European Union (EU) as the most ‘advanced’ or ‘successful’ example of regional integration. The Closer Economic Relationship between Australia and New Zealand, on the other hand, rests on a set of routinised, inter-governmental meetings and agreements that, at times, are informal. Analysts seldom consider the CER one of the world’s most advanced efforts at regional integration. Yet, in one important and politically sensitive issue of regional integration—the cross-border provision of services—the CER has advanced beyond the EU, and it has done so without political controversy.

In 2004 the European Commission introduced the so-called ‘Bolkestein Draft’ of a directive (COM 2004/2 final/3) to create an internal market in services. The draft directive promoted the ‘country-of-origin-principle’ (COOP), an encompassing form of ‘mutual recognition,’ as the mechanism for service market integration. Opponents of COOP, particularly in Germany and France, argued that it would degrade both service quality and working conditions for service employees. They forced its removal--and labour market regulation, generally--from the final directive, leaving these areas under national legislation and/or existing EU regulations.

The experience of service-market integration in Australia and New Zealand has been different. The Australian Mutual Recognition Agreement (1992) and the Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Agreement commit the governments of New Zealand, Australia and Australia’s eight states and territories to recognise each other’s licensing and registration requirements for service provision. Regulations governing employment relations in cross-border provision of services developed similarly. Mutual recognition has resulted in considerable integration of service markets without provoking popular or political resistance.

This paper compares the resistance to service market integration in the EU and its absence in the CER. It asks whether and how existing cultural, economic and social similarities in Australia and New Zealand might provide a more stable foundation for integration than supranational decision-making institutions. These questions address central concerns of integration studies as well as the study of institutions, more generally.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 8660 words || 
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5. Zippel, Kathrin. "The Relationship between Social Movements and Supra-National Institutions: The European Union" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p104645_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The European integration process itself has become more divisive, while transnational social movements have only rarely challenged European Union (EU) institutions themselves. This paper examines the relationship between supra-national institutions and social movements and potentials of transnational mobilization in the EU. Focusing on the hurdles and opportunities that the European integration process has provided women's movements in Europe, the dynamics between institutions and social movements are explored. Although the integration process has not encouraged broad-based transnational, grass-roots mobilization of women, the particular dynamics between EU institutions and women’s movements have created professionalized transnational advocacy networks on gender equality. These transnational advocacy networks include professionals, experts, academics, women in unions and political parties, and other women in the political and administrative elite. This case also highlights the challenges and strategies of transnational women's movements across territories, hierarchies and inequalities.

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