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2011 - 96th Annual Convention Words: 230 words || 
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1. Watson, Robert. "Symbols of Freedom: Emancipation Oak and Other Symbols" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 96th Annual Convention, TBA, Richmond, VA, Oct 04, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p522105_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: At 4:30 a.m., April 12, 1861, Confederate troops fired upon Fort Sumter in South Carolina. This was the beginning of the bloodiest war on American soil. It would last more than four years and 625,000 Americans would lose their lives. Nearly 200,000 African Americans joined the Union Army--38,000 lost their lives.
The Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865. Most scholars contend that the war was fought for two reasons: (1) Freedom; and (2) Abraham Lincoln’s effort to preserve the union. There are symbols associated with struggle for freedom. These include the Berlin Wall, Tiananmen Square, Robbins Island, and Fort Monroe, Virginia, a refuge for thousands of contraband during the Civil War.
Symbols motivate and inspire people. One of the most important symbols in our nation’s history is the Emancipation Oak, near the entrance to the campus of Hampton University. It is a lasting symbol of struggle, heritage and perseverance. It was under this oak tree that the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation in the South took place on January 1, 1863. That was the day of “jubilee” for more than 600,000 African Americans in Virginia at the time of the Civil War. The Emancipation Oak served as the first classroom on the Virginia Peninsula for newly freed black men and women.

2016 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 249 words || 
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2. Hu, Qiulei. "From Symbol of Imperial Power to Symbol of Literary Community: Representations of Women in Early Medieval Court Literature" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1072777_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The description of beautiful women is a popular subject in early court literature, especially the epideictic fu (rhapsody or poetic exposition) composed in the Western Han courts. Extant works such as “Gaotang fu” (Fu on the Gaotang Shrine) “Shennü fu” (Fu on the Goddess), “Dengtuzi haose fu” (Fu on Master Dengtu the Lecher), “Shanglin fu” (Fu on the Imperial Park), and “Qi fa” (Seven Stimuli) feature extensive portrayals of the physical beauty and seductive demeanor of divine women or women with divine beauty. Yet the writing of female beauty in early court literature is never an end to itself, but serves a function of affirming imperial authority and expressing absolute loyalty toward the ruler/emperor. In addition to the influence of an all-encompassing concept of empire, this function also has to do with the performative nature of Western Han court literature. With the collapse of the empire toward the end of the Eastern Han, the literary representation of women in court literature underwent remarkable transformations. Jian’an literati wrote many fu and poems on beautiful women, most of which were group compositions in the Cao courts. Divine women in their writings were no longer symbols of imperial power, but often represent ideal homosocial companionship and the shared values of a literary community. This paper examines literary representations of women in early and early medieval court literature and discusses their different characteristics in contemporary political and cultural contexts. It reveals the important roles literature played in creating, representing, and maintaining court culture.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Chew, Cindy. and Reeve, Robert. "Longitudinal patterns of change in children’s symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison judgment abilities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p959765_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Specifying the cognitive prerequisites that underlie children’s arithmetic abilities is critical for models of math development. Among other factors, differences in magnitude representation abilities have been linked to differences in early math competence (De Smedt, Verschaffel, & Ghesquiere, 2009; Halberda, Mazzocco, & Feigenson, 2008). In particular, the speed and accuracy with which children compare non-symbolic (NSM) quantities and symbolic (SM) numbers are claimed to be markers of early math ability (De Smedt, Noel, Gilmore, & Ansari, 2013; Libertus, Feigenson, & Halberda, 2013). With a few exceptions, the relations between NSM/SM comparison abilities and math skills have been examined cross-sectionally. Key questions about the relationship between the development of NSM and SM abilities remain to be answered. In the present study, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between NSM and SM to characterize: (1) how young children’s NSM/SM magnitude representations change across time, (2) the cognitive correlates associated with magnitude representation development and (3) how different patterns of NSM/SM development are related to arithmetic abilities.
We used a latent transition analysis (LTA; Vermunt & Magidson, 2013) to examine changes in patterns of NSM/SM judgment comparison abilities (accuracy and RT) in 174, 5- to 7-year-olds. Children were tested on two test occasions, one year apart. LTA assigns individuals who share similar responses to homogenous subgroups via a probability-based classification. LTA allows us to characterize changes in magnitude representation abilities over time and also to side-step assumptions associated with age-related differences in magnitude judgment comparison abilities. The LTA models revealed a five-subgroup with distinct patterns of magnitude comparison abilities (displayed in Figure 1): (1) Accurate Average, (2) Accurate Fast, (3) Accurate Slow, (4) Inaccurate Slow, and (5) Inaccurate Fast subgroups. Age was only partially associated with subgroup membership. Children in the highest performing subgroup (Accurate Fast) tended to stay in the same subgroup at Time 2, and although there were children from all subgroups who moved into Accurate Fast subgroup at Time 2, those who moved were mostly from Accurate Average and Inaccurate Fast subgroups (presented in Table 1). Children in the Accurate Slow and Inaccurate Slow subgroups were high movers and tended to move into the Accurate Average subgroup. These patterns of change in magnitude representations demonstrate a clear developmental trend and underscore separating accuracy (discriminating numerosities) and RT (assessing numerosities) measures.
We also assessed the relationship between LTA subgroup membership at Time 2 and visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM), Arabic digit naming speed, non-verbal and RT abilities at T1 as well as single-digit addition (SDA) at Time 2. Results show that VSWM, symbolic digit naming predicted subgroup membership. The Inaccurate Slow and Accurate Slow subgroup had poorer VSWM and symbolic access abilities compared to other subgroups. The Inaccurate Slow group also solved fewer SDA problems compared to other subgroups.
The findings highlight the importance of specifying patterns of change in magnitude comparison abilities longitudinally. The patterns observed in the present study reveal different developmental pathway in comparison abilities. It is also evident that different patterns of cognitive abilities are associated with these different pathways.

2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 109 pages || Words: 23229 words || 
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4. Southgate, Darby. "Symbolic Classification: The Process of Classifying Symbolic Music Genres and Styles." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 07, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p309531_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This work examines the social construction of contemporary musical genres and styles. Using a large data set of styles and genres collected from magazine and online databases from the music industry, I examine the symbolic classification process. I show musical styles are named different;y than are genres and that there is a distinct pattern of classification associated with genres and music styles that spans over 100 years.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 21 pages || Words: 8092 words || 
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5. Funk, Nathan. "The Clash of Symbols: Symbolic Aspects of the Islamic-Western Divide" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p98075_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In recent years, an increasing number of studies have explored how ethnic and communal conflicts are symbolically constructed and sustained. Such analyses are highly applicable to what is commonly referred to as ?Islamic-Western? conflict, in which instrumental as well as fear-predicated reliance upon divisive cultural symbolism plays a powerful role in the social transmission and amplification of hostility and resentment. The result is a ?clash of symbols? ? a richly symbolic conflict environment in which markers of cultural and religious identity are being deployed in ways that suggest the existence of a deep ideational and structural cleavage in international affairs. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how principles of conflict analysis derived from such theorists as Murray Edelman, David Kertzer, Anthony Cohen, and Lisa Schirch can be applied to elucidate the dynamic processes through which ?Western? as well as ?Muslim? politicians, journalists, public intellectuals, and religious figures are infusing messages and actions with the dramaturgy of intense cultural conflict. Attention will be given not only to the decoding of escalatory symbolic practices ? including symbolic forms of aggression, from suicide terrorism to Qur?an denigration ? but also to the formulation of policy prescriptions for mitigating symbolic conflict between Islamic and Western cultural groups.

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