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2014 - Texas Academy of Science Annual Meeting Words: 251 words || 
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1. Mulaly, Leah. "Differential impacts of organic and synthetic pesticides on the non-target organism C. elegans and on the target organism Termitoidae" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Texas Academy of Science Annual Meeting, Texas A&M Galveston Campus, Galveston, TX, Mar 07, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p729058_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Pesticides can be organic or synthesized to mimic organic pesticides but be more stable in the environment (Davies 2007). Pesticides are absorbed into soil and affect non-target organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we compared the effects of the organic pesticide, pyrethrum, to its synthetic counterpart, cypermethrin, and examined the effects of combining each with an organic synergist, parsley seed oil (PSO), in 1:1, 1:2, and1:3 ratios. PSO alone was also tested. Each treatment was tested on the non-target organism, C. elegans, and the target organism Termitoidae (termites). 11 treatments of OP50 E. coli were prepared using the highest sub-lethal concentration of pesticide (5 μg/mL). After C. elegans cultures were exposed, motility was assessed via thrashing assay in liquid. There were no significant effects on motility of C. elegans. Additionally, lifespan was determined by age-synchronizing worms, exposing them to pesticide, then transferring them to egg-laying inhibitor plates. There were no significant effects on lifespan of C. elegans, but there was an inverse relationship between the concentration of PSO that C. elegans were exposed to and their size, compared to control worms. Termites were exposed to identical OP50 treatments and lifespan was assessed. All termites exposed to PSO, cypermethrin, or both had significantly shorter lifespans than control termites. This suggests that PSO can be used to make cypermethrin effective in smaller doses, or used alone to exterminate pests, without having detrimental effects on C. elegans. Because PSO is biodegradable, these results can be considered in environmentally conscious agricultural practice.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 20 pages || Words: 4762 words || 
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2. Cosgrove, Erica. "Recent Challenges to Implementation of Targeted Sanctions (2003-2008): From Smarter Targeting to Effective Implementation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p250900_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: United Nations sanctions are an essential instrument of multilateral action under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. Since 1990, the Security Council has launched a new era in the use of collective coercive economic measures as a means of responding to violations of international norms. The Council has passed dozens of resolutions imposed against more than sixteen distinct targets including states, nongovernmental entities, militias and other political/military movements. This paper will explore the effectiveness of targeted sanctions by considering how successful sanctions are in terms of achieving the goals set by the UN Security Council. The activities that contribute to effective sanctions are discussed in three distinct areas and issues of concern and possibilities for improvement are highlighted.This paper will consider why sanctions do not always achieve the goals desired by the Security Council and suggest areas for possible improvement. The following activities are key components to the successful use of targeted sanctions, and are also areas where improvements might be made: A.Setting and Achieving GoalsB.ListingC.SignalingAfter laying out suggestions for more effective sanctions, we will turn our attention to implementation. Finding ways to implement sanctions in as swift and complete a manner as possible is the key to addressing the majority of problems that have been encountered in the use of sanctions. Finally, this paper will consider the various responses to sanctions after they are implemented and will offer suggestions for maintaining a flexible, dynamic response to events on the ground.

2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 10066 words || 
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3. Shaw, Allison. "The Effects of Target Sex, Presence of Others, and Attractiveness on Desire for Targets: A Re-Examination of Hill and Buss (2008)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 17, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p637321_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research on sexual selection has argued that males’ and females' mate choice strategies differ due to different biological reproductive pressures demanded of each. Hill and Buss (2008) argue that due to these differing pressures and the subsequent difference in mate choice strategies used by males and females, the two sexes additionally differ in their use of social information when deciding upon a mate. The present paper utilized a 2 X 2 X 3 (target sex, attractiveness, presence of others) design in order to replicate Hill & Buss’ (2008) findings. Furthermore, the present paper proposed an alternative explanation for their findings (attractiveness effect) and examined this proposed alternative explanation. The pattern of means obtained in this study is inconsistent with Hill and Buss’ (2008) previous findings and the models derived from their work. Although the data were inconsistent with the hypothesized attractiveness effect model, the data were consistent with revised attractiveness model.

2007 - American Sociological Association Pages: 46 pages || Words: 12680 words || 
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4. Kimport, Katrina. and Earl, Jennifer. "The Targets of Online Protest: State and Private Targets of Four Online Protest Tactics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, TBA, New York, New York City, Aug 11, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p183349_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: A large debate has erupted in recent work on social movements about the role of the state in protest, with some advocating alternative approaches to the study of social movements, such as a focus on institutional authorities. Using data on four types of online protest (petitions, boycotts, and letter-writing and e-mail campaigns), acquired using an innovative new methodology that produces a generalizable sample of online protest actions, this paper addresses this debate. We find that, while the state is a frequent target of online protest, a significant portion of protest activity targets other institutional authorities. Our analyses disaggregate the state and distinguish between types of institutional authorities, further deepening the understanding of both state and non-state actors. In addition to informing the existing debate over the definition of social movement activity, our data suggest an association between tactical forms and their targets. Finally, by using Internet data, this paper contributes to an under-studied area of social movement research: online protest.

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