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2006 - American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Words: 254 words || 
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1. Wilson, Debbie., Kimberlin, Carole., Brushwood, David. and Segal, Richard. "Pharmacist and Pharmacy Technician Opinions on Community Pharmacy Technician Knowledge & Functions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California, USA, Jul 05, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p119093_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Objectives: This study investigated areas of agreement and disagreement between pharmacists and technicians on the role of community pharmacy technicians.
Methods: A random sample of 2000 community Florida pharmacists and 2000 community Florida Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) Certified Pharmacy Technicians (CPhT) were mailed a questionnaire. The questionnaire included 26 community pharmacy functions. Responses were dichotomized into those that “agreed” that technicians should perform the function and those that “disagreed”. Chi-square difference tests were performed using SPSS v12. The p-value for a significant result was set at 0.05/26 Results: Of the 4000 subjects targeted there were 383 usable cases in the pharmacist group (response rate 19%), and 579 in the technician group (29%). Of particular interest were items developed to be beyond technicians’ traditional involvement in processing prescriptions: (1) Understand the difference between an ace-inhibitor and a beta-blocker (39% of pharmacists and 82% of technicians agreed that technicians should do this), (2) Identify side effects (21% and 59%), (3) Assess medication use (45% and 60%), (4) Educate on medication use (29% and 50%), (5) Evaluate medication therapy (17% and 41%), (6) Resolve drug therapy problems (11% and 25%), (7) Evaluate whether a DUR needs to be shown to the pharmacist (60%, 83%), and (8) Answer simple patient questions about medication (60% and 82%).
Conclusions: Pharmacists and technicians generally agreed on tasks surrounding prescription processing and claims adjudication, but there was considerable disagreement on patient care tasks. Technicians agreed to a much more expanded role than did pharmacists.

2014 - RSA Annual Meeting Words: 87 words || 
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2. Valeriani, Simona. "The Gentleman Amateur, Craftsmen, and Technicians: Building and Agricultural Matters in Seventeenth-Century England" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the RSA Annual Meeting, New York, NY, Hilton New York, <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p678079_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: This paper will use Sir Roger Pratt (1620–84) as a starting point for a reflection on the relationship between amateurs, the world of professional crafts and institutions of knowledge formation in England in the seventeenth century. A central feature of the identity that Pratt, a gentleman and a lawyer, constructed for himself was his love for architecture and the investigation of nature. This paper will discuss Pratt's writings, in which he considers the relationship between gentlemen, the learned, and craftspeople in shaping taste and advancing technical knowledge.

2006 - National Association of EMS Physicians Words: 339 words || 
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3. Morrison, Laurie., Visentin, Laura. and Verbeek, P. Richard. "Inter-rater reliability and comfort with a termination of resuscitation guideline for defibrillation-trained Emergency Medical Technicians" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of EMS Physicians, Registry Resort, Naples, FL, <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p55846_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of defibrillation-trained Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT-D) in the application of a previously derived Basic Life Support Termination of Resuscitation (BLS TOR) guideline for Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) and to measure their comfort level using this guideline to terminate resuscitation. METHODS: This survey was completed during the prospective validation study of the BLS TOR guideline. The study was conducted in 12 rural and urban communities in Ontario, Canada, involving 24 EMS systems. Attendant and driver EMT-D crewmembers were asked, on a case-by-case basis, to theoretically apply the guideline and rate their comfort level on a 5 point Likert scale (1 = very comfortable; 5 = very uncomfortable). Interpretation of the guideline was a binary variable: correct or incorrect versus truth based on the confirmed guideline variables. For each OHCA, a Kappa score for agreement with the guideline interpretation versus truth and for agreement between both crewmembers was calculated. Comfort with the theoretical application of the guideline was summarized as a mean score by group. A t-test statistic comparing mean comfort level between EMT-Ds interpreting the rule correctly versus incorrectly was computed. RESULTS: A total of 1184 attendant and 1211 driver EMT-Ds completed the survey, with 1160 cases with both driver and attendant data available. Kappa for agreement of interpretation of the guideline between driver and attendant EMT-D was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.87, 0.92); between attendant and truth, Kappa = 0.88 (95% CI, 0.85, 0.91); between driver and truth, Kappa = 0.88 (95% CI, 0.85, 0.91). EMT-Ds who applied the guideline correctly were significantly more comfortable (N = 2253, mean comfort score = 2.0 or comfortable, 95% CI, 2.0, 2.1) than those who did not (N = 134, mean comfort score = 3.0 or neutral, 95% CI, 2.8, 3.3), p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: EMT-Ds achieved excellent agreement in the application of the BLS TOR guideline, suggesting that they are able to correctly apply the guideline. A high level of comfort was associated with the correct interpretation of the guideline.

2010 - SASE Annual Conference Words: 249 words || 
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4. Van Noy, Michelle. "The Meaning and Use of Credentials: The Case of Technical Associate Degrees in the Hiring of IT Technicians" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SASE Annual Conference, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA, Jun 24, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p428777_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Education is routinely touted as a vital component for successful competition in a global economy. However, the underlying meaning of educational credentials and their role in employment are less than clear. While multiple theoretical perspectives posit ideas about the meaning of educational credentials and their use by employers, limited evidence exists on the actual link between these credentials and the occupations they intend to prepare people for. For example, human capital theory argues credentials represent skills that increase productivity in the workplace. Alternatively, conflict theories argue education cultivates class-based behaviors and knowledge in individuals who employers hire to take on class-based roles at work. However, these theories are rarely examined from the perspective of the persons responsible for making hiring decisions nor viewed within their specific organizational and labor market contexts.

In particular, within the US context, community college education is increasingly viewed as an important element of workforce development in a global economy. However, the meaning and use of community college credentials, particularly technical associate degrees, are not well understood. Drawing on institutional theory, economic sociology, and the sociology of work, this paper examines the meanings hiring managers attribute to these degrees and how these are shaped by their views about occupations, their views on community colleges as institutions, and their local labor market context. The paper then examines how these meanings are translated into the use of educational credentials. The paper draws on employer interviews conducted in Seattle and Detroit with hiring managers responsible for hiring IT technicians.

2017 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 216 words || 
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5. Kory, Stephan. "The Manipulation and Modification of Mantic and Medical Technicians in Mid-Medieval Imperial Chinese Histories" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1193909_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: My paper explores the complex interface between mantic and medical technicians in five Chinese court-sponsored histories compiled between the mid-sixth and mid-seventh centuries. Recognizing that the bibliographies and bureaucratic structures in these histories clearly distinguish mantic and medical texts and techniques, this paper questions how and why the imperial historians responsible for them grouped together biographical accounts of “doctors” and “diviners,” and what they contained. My thesis is that although mid-medieval court historians were dealing with an array of limitations (e.g., political, ritual, historicist, practical, and textual) in their portrayals of lives, the biographical traditions they recorded provide us with telling—albeit modified and manipulated—images of who “doctors” and “diviners” were in early medieval China. I draw from contemporary narrative theory and a growing corpus of secondary scholarship devoted to the study of mantic and medical practice in pre-modern China to argue that practitioners were not only grouped together as exemplars of “minor traditions” (xiaodao 小道) compared to teachings featured in the medieval Confucian canon, but also as contributors to state welfare and as religious adepts with similarly situated forms of knowledge. This filiation between mantic and medical practitioners has clear historical precedents, but it lost some currency in early imperial times. My paper introduces its resurgence in the Northern Qi (550-577) and early Tang (618-907) courts.

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