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2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 21 pages || Words: 7500 words || 
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1. Clarke, Kevin. and Primo, David. "The Theoretical Implications of the Empirical Implications of Theoretical Models" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-03-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p59487_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 27 pages || Words: 9705 words || 
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2. Clarke, Kevin. and Primo, David. "The Theoretical Implications of the Empirical Implications of Theoretical Models" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-03-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p84544_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Although the use of models has come to dominate much of the scientific study of politics, our understanding of the role or function that models play in the scientific enterprise has not kept pace. Political science clings to an outdated theory-based approach to scientific inference known as hypothetico-deductivism. We argue for a new approach to scientific inference that highlights the centrality of models in scientific reasoning, avoids the pitfalls of the hypothetico-deductive method, and offers political scientists a new way of thinking about the relationship between the natural world and the models with which we are so familiar.

2011 - Seventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 147 words || 
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3. Daine, Julia. "Multiple-researcher theoretical voice analysis: Using three researchers and theoretical orientations to create a dialogue" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Seventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain Illini Union, Urbana, IL, May 17, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-03-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p495295_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Three researchers analyzed data separately using their own individual theoretical orientations or guiding perspectives. Each member was responsible for analyzing the data, which included audio recordings of interviews, interview transcripts, and notes taken by the interviewer about each participant. By using the multiple researcher approach in the analysis phase the team was able develop a more comprehensive analysis of participants’ experiences and perspectives. The researchers also used multiple researcher triangulation to corroborate and cross-check the evidence indentified by each researcher, though each theoretical orientation/paradigm provided a different finding or conclusion than the others. This approach gave the researchers the opportunity to share individual perspectives from their chosen theoretical orientation contributing different perspectives. Researchers’ perspectives, and the representative voices employed within the research findings, differed and added to a dialogue that intended to inspire new lines of thought for each co-researcher as they conducted their separate data analyses.

2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 11558 words || 
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4. Weyland, Kurt. "The Diffusion of Innovations: A Theoretical Analysis" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2019-03-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p65140_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper assesses how well four theoretical approaches--which emphasize external pressure, rational learning, cognitive heuristics, and symbolic imitation--can account for the diffusion of innovations across countries in its three distinctive characteristics, namely its wave-like character, its geographic concentration, and its creation of similarity amid diversity. The cognitive-psychological approach, which invokes the heuristics of availability, representativeness, and anchoring, emerges as most persuasive.

2003 - American Political Science Association Pages: 28 pages || Words: 10592 words || 
Info
5. Weyland, Kurt. "Theoretical Perspectives on the Diffusion of Innovations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 27, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-03-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p64317_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: What accounts for the waves of policy diffusion that increasingly sweep across regions of the world? Why do many diverse countries adopt similar changes? Based on evidence from the spread of Chilean-style pension privatization in Latin America, this paper assesses the relative merit of four competing theoretical explanations that scholars of diffusion have proposed. As the mechanism driving the spread of innovations, these approaches emphasize external pressures, emanating especially from international financial institutions; the quest for symbolic or normative legitimacy; rational learning and cost-benefit calculation; and cognitive shortcuts and heuristics, respectively. The paper assesses which one of these frameworks can best account for the three distinctive features of diffusion, namely, its wave-like temporal pattern; its geographical clustering; and the spread of similarity amid diversity. Drawing on pattern matching and process tracing, the paper concludes that the cognitive-psychological framework offers a particularly persuasive account.

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