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2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: 24 pages || Words: 6993 words || 
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1. Chock, Tamara., Schackman, Daniel., Ostrowski, Michelle. and Sethi, Ritesh. "It Don’t Matter to Me: The Impact of Self-Relevance and Social Distance on Third Person, First Person, and Second Person Effect Judgments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p258668_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study found that social distance and self-relevance affected self-other perceptions concerning the effects of anti-methamphetamine messages. Participants who made 3PE judgments gave the lowest ratings of message self-relevance, methamphetamine-use intent, similarity of people in the PSAs to self and peers, and message credibility. Those who made 2PE judgments reported the highest levels of self-relevance, methamphetamine-use intent, and message credibility. Message “quality” increased perceived effects on self, but didn’t’ determine the type of self-other judgment.

2014 - International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 10017 words || 
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2. Chung, Sungeun., Moon, Shinil. and Jeong, Da Eun. "Is the Third-Person Effect Real?: A Critical Examination of the Effect of the Third-Person Perception on Censorship Attitudes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference, Seattle Sheraton Hotel, Seattle, Washington, May 21, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p714140_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The theoretical rationale and testing methods for the behavioral hypothesis of the third-person effect were examined. The mathematical relationships among four different statistical models were analyzed. The average effects of the third-person perception, presumed media effect on others, and perceived media effect on self were estimated for 14 previous studies (Study 1, the total N = 5,253). Study 2 conducted a meta-regression analysis for Schmierbach, Boyle, Xu, and McLeod’s (2011) correlational data. The results of the analyses showed that previously used methods have critical limitations. The average effect of DME on support for censorship was found to be insignificant and highly inconsistent. The average effect of PME3 on support for censorship was found to be greatest and most consistent. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings were discussed.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 44 pages || Words: 11530 words || 
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3. Chock, Tamara. and Lee, Sungkyoung. "The Impact of Appeal Type & Message Structure on First Person & Third Person Judgments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p15054_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study examined factors influencing 117 undergraduates’ ratings of the effects of anti-smoking TV PSAs on self, best friends, and “the average person in your age group.” Participants viewed 36 PSAs and rated each for perceived effects, valence, arousal, self-relevance, and subsequent message recognition. The study used a (2) Appeal Type (social/fear) X (2) Camera Changes (slow/fast) X (3) Information Introduced (low/medium/high) design. Sixty-one participants made Third Person (3P) (self less affected than others) and 56 participants made First Person (1P) judgments (self more affected than others). For both groups, perceived differences between effects significantly increased as the social distance of the “other” increased. Greater differences were found between the 1P and 3P groups’ ratings for effects on self than between their ratings for others. Valence, arousal, and self-relevance increased perceived effects of PSAs on self, although these functioned differently for social and fear appeals. Perceived effects on self and others and arousal were greater for fear appeals than for social appeals. Message recognition, however, was better for social appeals. In addition to appeal type, structural features of the PSAs—message pacing and complexity—influenced judgments. For slower paced messages, increasing message complexity (II) increased perceived effects on self and others, arousal, and recognition. Participants reported greater effects on self and others, arousal, and recognition for less complex fast-paced messages than for slower messages. However, as message complexity increased, ratings for these variables decreased. Implications for 3P and 1P judgments and suggestions for health campaign PSA message design are discussed.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 9018 words || 
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4. Spinda, John. "Perceptual Biases and Behavioral Effects Among NFL Fans: An Investigation of First-Person and Third-Person Effects" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Nov 13, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p420594_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study explored first-person effects (FPE) and third-person effects (FPE) among an online sample of National Football League (NFL) fans (N = 646). The results of this study indicated that NFL fans projected both first-person and third-person perceptual biases on to groups of comparison others. Additionally, these perceptions, along with message desirability and NFL fan identification, were linked to behavioral effects in the form of basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) and cutting off reflected failure (CORFing).

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