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2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 241 words || 
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1. Carvin, Stephanie. "Threats, Challenges and Changes, International Law and the Evolution of "Threat" Since the End of the Cold War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p251330_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Perhaps unsurprisingly, the changing nature of what may be considered a "threat" to international society has had on impact on international law. As the concept of "threat" is broadened to address perceived needs in the international system, that which international law regulates and permits also is changing. Massive human rights abuses or terrorism are now considered to pose threats to international peace and security and new ideas about intervention and the use of force have emerged as a result. Perhaps most interesting of these new legal norms are those which address the role and needs of the individual - an area of international concern and legislation which has seen tremendous growth since the end of the Cold War. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the changes that have occurred since the 1990s, and argue that as the notion of what constitutes a threat to international society has widened, laws regulating state action have been reconsidered to accommodate these changing perceptions. It will go on to argue that the evolving concept of threat has increasingly focused on individuals and this has prompted controversial changes in the way international law has regarded, protected and prosecuted human beings rather than states. But also, importantly, what states - now under a responsibility to protect - may do to uphold these new norms in terms of intervention and pre-emption has also changed the way we consider restrictions on the right of states to resort to force.

2014 - International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 7427 words || 
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2. Schmuck, Desiree. and Matthes, Jorg. "The Effects of Right-Wing Populist Advertisements on Young Voters: Symbolic Threats, Economic Threats, and the Moderating Role of Education" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference, Seattle Sheraton Hotel, Seattle, Washington, May 21, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/X-PDF>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p714316_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Across Europe, right-wing populist parties use campaign advertisements that depict symbolic and economic threats posed by immigrants. Despite the relevance of this topic, there is no research on the effects of such advertisements, especially when it comes to young voters. We theorize that the attitudinal effects of threatening advertisements depend on young voters’ formal education level. In an experimental study, a total of N = 162 pupils were randomly assigned to three conditions, a symbolic threat advertisement, an economic threat advertisement, or a control condition. Exposure to the symbolic and economic threat advertisements led to a significant increase in negative attitudes toward immigrants. However, the economic threat advertisement was only effective for pupils with lower educational degrees compared to better-educated young voters. The effects did not depend on young voters’ party predisposition. Theoretical and societal implications are discussed.

2015 - Southwestern Social Science Association 95th Annual Meeting Words: 300 words || 
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3. Martin, Paul. "When Threat is Not Really Threat: Modeling Disparities in White Supremacist and Militia Movement Mobilization During the Obama Presidency" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Social Science Association 95th Annual Meeting, Grand Hyatt Denver, Denver, Colorado, Apr 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p988307_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The election of President Barack Obama in 2008 represented an immense political threat for those on the extreme right. Unsurprisingly, since that time there has been an increase in the number of extreme right wing groups in the U.S. Political process theory predicts such an increase in mobilization. However, within the extreme right this increase in mobilization is not uniform. While the number of private militias increased by over 695 percent from 2008 to 2011(Potok 2013), the number of white supremacist groups increased by a mere 1.5 percent over the same time period (SPLC). This is a surprisingly low figure given the well-known ideological attitudes and past history of violence towards African Americans by white supremacist groups. What accounts for this disparity in mobilization within two different movements on the extreme right? In this paper, I examine two different propositions. The first asserts that because in the past many white supremacist groups have reacted to more local political and social events, their outlook is more local in nature than militias. Therefore, national political events, even ones as immense as the election of an African American president, are less likely to trigger higher levels of white supremacist mobilization. The second asserts that white supremacist groups utilize national political threats only as rhetoric, and instead of behaving like political groups interested in policy change, they behave as social clubs merely providing social solidarity and “spaces of hate” (Simi & Futrell 2010: 96) to members. I use interviews with top leaders in order to test these two potential relationships and find moderate levels of support for both propositions. White supremacist groups are both more likely to mobilize in response to more local political events and to behave more like social clubs interested in providing social solidarity than political organizations interested in influencing policy.

2015 - Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology Words: 224 words || 
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4. Fritsche, Immo., Stollberg, Janine. and Jonas, Eva. "Authoritarian responses to threat are not genuinely conservative: Threat to control increases support for collective change norms and collective engagement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Omni San Diego Hotel, San Diego, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1012107_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Abstract: Perceptions of personal threat increase authoritarian tendencies in groups. Although this reliable effect has often been explained as a global conservative reaction to threat, we provide evidence that it rather reflects a specific group-based response. We argue that under conditions of threat people may strive to regain a global sense of control by turning to and affirming agentic ingroups as sources of collective control through the social (instead of the personal) self. Authoritarian conduct may then be a means to increase the perceived agency of the ingroup and to join in collective agency. This implies that following threat people do not become more conservative but more ready to act as a group member, even if this means support for change. This finds support in three experimental studies, showing that when threat to personal control was made salient, participants increased approval for organizational change (Study 1) and academic reform projects (Studies 2 and 3) when participants were made to believe that the majority of their ingroup approved (vs. disapproved) of these changes. Study 2 further demonstrates that this was only true for ingroup norms but not for nominal majority opinions or outgroup norms. Study 3 shows that the nature of salient ingroup norms as proposing either change or preservation did not moderate the effects. This supports a social identity account of authoritarian responses to threat.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 110 words || 
Info
5. Hicks, Thaddeus. and Tayah, Marie-Jose. "A Survey of Threats Presented by Immigrant Jihadist Groups and the Role of Community Policing in Curbing these Threats" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p252809_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: With the size and speed of modern transnational migratory movements, political mobilization of diaspora groups has become increasingly efficient and organized. Transnational political movements do not limit themselves to advocacy efforts, but oftentimes encompass counterfeiting, illegal trade and/or terrorist activities. The scope of this paper is twofold. The first part surveys the threat of immigrant jihadist groups active in the worlds’ industrialized capitals, where they recruit supporters, raise funds and plan operations. The second part addresses the role of community policing in curbing the threat of the latter groups. Community policing assists police officers in distinguishing between diaspora groups expressing themselves democratically and those engaged in criminal and/or terrorist activities.

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