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2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 5020 words || 
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1. Shin, Mija., Van de Vord, Rebecca. and Chen, Yi-Chun "Yvonnes". "Physical Threat Versus Social Threat: Effects of Antidrug PSAs on the Viewer’s Cognitive and Emotional Responses" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p173092_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study investigated how college students process different types of fear appeals used in antidrug public service announcements. Past research has more focused on the difference in the effects of fear versus nonfear appeals. However, little research examined different types of appeals used within fear messages. This study compared physical threat and social threat used in these messages and how each type affects the television viewers’ cognitive and emotional processing of the messages. Differences between the 2 types of threat messages in the processing observed through the viewers’ physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and facial EMG) were reported in this study. Further, how females and males process these threat messages was also examined.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 7667 words || 
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2. Watson, Scott. "Manufacturing Threats: Boat People As Threats or Refugees?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p100725_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How have certain illegal immigration control policies come to be regarded as essential for national security in some liberal democratic states while in others these policies remain unacceptable? Forced return, mandatory detention, restricted access to courts and temporary protection have been adopted by a number of liberal states, all of which violate the regulative norms of the 1951 Refugee Convention. This paper argues that the constitutive and regulative norms of the international refugee regime are based on a ?humanitarian? construction of refugee and receiving state identity, and that the shift toward a securitised discourse has re-constructed the identity of refugees and refugee producing states. This discursive shift has been a crucial factor in permitting state elites to enact policies that violate these international norms.Drawing on the arrival of unauthorized boat arrivals in Canada and Australia over a twenty-year period, this paper will show that securitising actors within these societies sought to alter the dominant discourse on refugees and asylum seekers. In Australia, these securitising attempts proved successful, shifting the discourse from humanitarian to securitised, thus ultimately paving the way for government elites to enact policies previously deemed unthinkable for a generous, humanitarian state. In Canada, these securitising attempts failed, making the implementation of restrictive measures unbefitting to the perceived Canadian national identity.

2006 - International Studies Association Words: 162 words || 
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3. Malminen, Johannes. "Global Finance as a Threat: Post-crisis Threat Perception and Policy Development" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p99908_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In recent years the threat of global financial crisis has risen on national agendas as a result of the multiple, severe, and oftentimes contagious financial crises of the 1990s. This paper assesses the development of threat perception among political elites in the aftermath of severe financial crisis and the efforts they make to avert such crises in the future. The paper argues that in the 1990s the contemporary rise of global finance caught policymakers unaware and unprepared to manage the situation. Since then, the realization of increasing state vulnerability to financial crisis has triggered a number of specific policy responses in order to manage the threat. Although the rise of global finance has constrained policymakers' available options, their actual policy responses have shown that there are still strategic choices they can make to better manage the threats presented by global finance. The paper draws predominantly on the experiences of the Swedish financial crisis of 1992 and is primarily based on elite interviews.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 37 pages || Words: 17762 words || 
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4. Lusk, Adam. "Arguing Threats: How the Media Environment affects the Rhetorical Strategies for Threat Legitimation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p180509_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper studies the process of gaining public consent about a security threat, or threat legitimation. For public consent and successful threat legitimation, foreign policy actors make arguments, or threat claims, about an issue or event. Successful arguments depend on the rhetorical strategies used by foreign policy actors. Rhetorical strategies change, reinforce, and/or silence the public discourse about a threat claim, often by altering the social relationships among key social actors. Unlike previous rhetoric studies, however, this paper realizes that rhetorical strategies are not universal and ahistorical. Instead, effective rhetorical strategies depend on the media environment. The media environment is critical for understanding the success of rhetorical strategies because of the mediated nature of public debate and consent. Therefore, this paper investigates the effectiveness of various rhetorical strategies in different media environments. In particular, this paper analyzes the difference between radio and television media environments. For the radio environment, this paper studies the successful legitimation of the Soviet threat after World War II and the unsuccessful legitimation of the German threat before World War II. For the television environment, the paper examines the successful legitimation of the Noriega threat in Panama, and the failed legitimation of the Sandinista threat in Nicaragua. The paper assesses how the media environment affects the availability and success of different rhetorical strategies by using an interdisciplinary approach influenced by classical rhetoric studies and the work of Kenneth Burke. Through these four cases, the paper demonstrates the importance of rhetorical strategies for threat legitimation in US foreign policy, and how the media environment affects the use of rhetoric.

2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 36 words || 
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5. Strathman, Brent. "Threat Inflation, Existential Threat, & Domestic Mobilization for War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p84947_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Although threat is central to international security, few works examine how statesmen manipulate external threats to satisfy their own security goals. This paper provides a theory of threat inflation, and investigates cases of American adventurism.

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