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2004 - American Sociological Association Words: 193 words || 
1. Boase, Jeffrey., Horrigan, John. and Rainie, Lee. "Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and ICT Ties - Results from the Pew Social Ties Survey" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper draws on results of a recent survey, which was funded by Pew Internet & American
Life Project. The telephone survey used random digit dialing to collect a sample 2,200
American adults. This paper ties together the following themes: social network composition,
communication patterns, access to resources, psychological dispositions and social tolerance.
Preliminary evidence suggests that heavy email users use email in conjunction with other
media, to maintain a relatively large number of weak ties. These weak ties tend to come from
different social backgrounds (i.e. ethnicity, occupation and gender), which effect these
respondents in a number of ways. The occupational diversity allows them access to a variety
instrumental knowledge, or social capital. Further, their contact with diverse others means
that these respondents tend to be more socially tolerant and open to new ideas (a
psychological disposition psychologies refer to as "openness"). As these respondents are heavy
communicators, they tend to be relatively extroverted. They are more likely to make new
friends online and be early adopters of new technologies that are oriented towards social
purposes. In summary, email use effects the composition of social networks, which in-turn
leads to the following outcomes: greater access to instrumental knowledge, social tolerance,
openness and a sense of social support.

2017 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: 6872 words || 
2. Shen, Cuihua. and Gong, He. "Personal ties, group ties and latent ties: Connecting network size to diversity and trust in the mobile social network WeChat" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, Aug 09, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examines whether and how personal and group network sizes affect diversity and trust in the mobile social media WeChat. We argue that the social network affordances of WeChat, coupled with its distinct network privacy, give rise to a wide spectrum of relations ranging from strong, weak to latent ties. Online survey data (N = 313) reveal that both personal network size and group network size are positively related to people’s social network diversity (measured by the position generator). However, group network size is negatively related to people’s trust in their WeChat contacts. We argue that the increasing size of the group network and the existence of latent ties reduce familiarity, certainty and accountability that are prerequisites of trust.

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