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2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 37 words || 
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1. Franz, Michael. and Ridout, Travis. "Are Advertising Tone and Campaign Tone the Same?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p85183_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: I assess the impact of ad tone--whether negative ads or positive ads are more persuasive--by examining U.S. Senate races. I also ask whether the impact of ad tone depends on viewer characteristics, specifically their partisanship and sophistication.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Words: 253 words || 
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2. Madrid, Raul. "Differently Toned News: How Tone Influences Opinion on Immigration" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1254315_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The 2016 presidential election brought to the fore the topic of immigration, with then-candidate Donald Trump making it a central campaign issue. Trump’s heated rhetoric focused on the changing demographics of the United States, seemingly blaming immigrants – at least in part – for some of the country’s woes. Meanwhile, media outlets reported on Trump’s claims regarding immigration in different manners, often quite differently from state-to-state, and often with differently toned ways of expressing their arguments. Conservative outlets at the state-level framed their messages in largely negative tones while focusing on negative outcomes related to demographic shifts, while liberal sources constructed their messages in a more positive tone, often pointing to some of the positive outcomes related to demographic changes. It is difficult to tell if the ways in which media outlets at the state-level reported on immigration and demographic changes affected the way in which individuals living in those states came to understand the issue. This study implements a survey experiment to explore how differently toned newspaper articles affect the way in which citizens come to think of immigration and immigration-related issues (specifically, granting driver’s licenses to undocumented immigrants), considering demographic shifts. The results of the experiment show that negatively toned articles have the propensity to worsen opinions on immigration and policy-related outcomes. Positively toned articles, on the other hand, can shift opinions in a more positive direction. These findings show some of the ways in which the media has the ability to shift opinions, even with something as subtle as tone.

2011 - ACTFL Annual Convention and World Languages Expo Pages: unavailable || Words: 457 words || 
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3. Yang, Chunsheng. "The Mystery of Tone 2 and Tone 3" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ACTFL Annual Convention and World Languages Expo, Denver Convention Center, Denver, Colorado, Nov 17, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p498008_index.html>
Publication Type: CLTA Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This presentation reports an interesting phenomenon related to Tone 2 and Tone 3. In spite of the difficulty CFL learners have with these two tones, Tone 2 and Tone 3 were most frequently produced as surfacing tone errors by some CFL learners, regardless of the underlying tones.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Ma, Weiyi., Zhou, Peng., Gao, Liqun. and Crain, Stephen. "Is that the Tone I heard? Mandarin-speaking Three-year-olds’ Representation of Lexical Tones in Novel Words" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p956060_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many of the world’s languages are tonal languages, in which the tone is a semantically distinctive feature. Take Mandarin for example. Ma1 with a high-level tone means mother; ma2 with a rising tone means hemp; ma3 with a dipping tone means horse; and ma4 with a falling tone means to curse. Research showed that Mandarin-speaking 3-year-olds had an accurate representation of lexical tones of familiar words. Furthermore, some tone changes were easier to perceive than others. For example, tone2 (rising) and tone3 (falling-rising) were harder to distinguish from each other than other tone pairs. However, two questions remain unanswered. First, do children have an accurate representation of lexical tones in novel words? Second, how do children use lexical tones as cues to word identity in a novel word-learning task?

Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm, we conducted two experiments to examine Mandarin-speaking 3-year-olds’ tonal representation of novel words. Experiment 1 (28 children) consists of five phases (Figure 1). During the training phase (four trials), children were presented with the animated video of two novel objects, each paired with a novel word both pronounced with tone2 (rising) embedded in carrier sentences. During the test phase, children were shown the static version of the two novel objects side-by-side and were directed to look at one of them. On half of the test trials, the novel words were correctly pronounced (CP) while on the other half, they were mispronounced (MP) with either tone3 (dipping) or tone4 (falling). Results showed that children looked at the target image longer than the non-target image on the CP trials. Furthermore, on the MP trials, the mispronunciation of tone2 as tone4 hindered children’s word learning performance, but the mispronunciation of tone2 as tone3 did not. The finding suggests that the lexical tone is not necessarily a strong cue to word identity for Mandarin-speaking children. However, it is also possible that the tone2-tone3 distinction is indeed a strong cue to word identity, but the tone2-tone3 pair used in this study was hardly distinguishable.

Experiment 2 (28 children) addressed whether the tone2-tone3 pair used in this study was distinguishable. In addition, it also examined whether a strong tonal distinction context facilitated children’s use of tones in a word-learning task. The design of Experiment 2 was similar to that of Experiment 1 except that during the training phase, the animated video of two novel objects were paired with the same syllable pronounced with either tone 2 or tone 3, thus, offering children a strong indication that the tone2-tone3 difference was semantically distinctive. Results showed that children were able to use tone2 and tone3 to distinguish word identity in Experiment 2.

To sum up, this study shows that children have an accurate representation of lexical tones at a novel word-learning task. Furthermore, the lexical tone is not necessarily a strong cue to word identity. Finally, a tonal distinction context facilitates children’s use of the lexical tone as a cue to word identity.

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