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2013 - BEA Pages: unavailable || Words: 4682 words || 
1. Finklea, Bruce. "The Quandary of Ken in "Toy Story 3:" Thinking Outside the (Toy) Box about Masculinity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BEA, Las Vegas Hotel (LVH), Las Vegas, NV, Apr 07, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-22 <>
Publication Type: Open Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper argues that the character of Ken in "Toy Story 3" is effectively constructed and treated as a gay male. In regards to heteronormativity, Pixar upholds traditional gender roles as being "proper," while construing Ken as the improper other, rather than a more feminine form of masculinity.

2016 - SRCD Special Topic Meeting: Technology and Media in Children's Development Words: 382 words || 
2. Zosh, Jennifer. and Lomas, Lauren. "Traditional versus electronic toys: How toy-type impacts parent-child interactions and self-regulation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Special Topic Meeting: Technology and Media in Children's Development, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Abstract: The dramatic, widespread adoption of electronic toys/media represents a culture shift for today’s families. On average, children under the age of 8 spend almost two hours a day using screen media (Common Sense Media, 2013). Recently, parents from an urban, low-income community reported that over 90% of their children under the age of 1 had already begun to use mobile devices daily and by the age of 4, 75% of children owned their own device (Kabali et al., 2015). Despite their prevalent use, research about the impact of technology is lacking. Preliminary evidence suggests some potential implications of using electronic versus traditional/non-electronic books (Parish-Morris et al., 2013) and toys (Woolridge & Shapka, 2012; Zosh et al., 2015).
Here, we take a bidirectional approach and investigate the impact of technology on child development 1) indirectly through altering the quality of parent-child interactions, and 2) directly by asking whether technology use impacts self-regulation abilities for toddlers.
Phase 1 examines parent-child interactions – the quality of which have long-term impact in a variety of areas including language (Hart & Risley, 1995), numerical cognition (Gunderson & Levine, 2011) and spatial understanding (Pruden, et al., 2011). Here, we vary the toy-type (electronic and non-electronic) and the domain (books, puzzles) and examine the impact on parent language (words/min., content, praise, etc.). In Phase 2, we examine the impact of toy-type on children’s performance on a self-regulation task, a key predictor for later success (McClelland et al., 2007). Recently, studies have begun to show that even short-term (30-min.) experiences with fast-paced television impair self-regulation abilities in young children (Lillard et al., 2015) giving rise to the possibility that the types of toys children play with may impact their ability to wait for an increased reward.
Results suggest that while parents spoke with the same rate regardless of toy-type, they used more directives and talked more about the features when playing with the electronic version of the toys and books while they used more praise and asked more questions when playing with the traditional versions. Furthermore, children were more likely to wait for an increased reward after playing with the electronic versions. Ultimately, this will contribute to our broader understanding of how technology can be leveraged to improve outcomes and also mitigate possible negative consequences of these experiences.

2006 - XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies Words: 399 words || 
3. Mareschal, Denis. and Tan, Seok. "Categorization of hybrid toy stimuli by 18-month-olds: Partonomies, Taxonomies, or “Ad hoc” categories?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Westin Miyako, Kyoto, Japan, Jun 19, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Abstract: David Rakison and colleagues examined the use of object parts to from categories (e.g., Rakison & Butterworth, 1998). They tested 14- to 24-month-olds with a combination of animal, vehicle and hybrid animal-vehicle toys, using a sequential touching task and found that infants’ apparent use of parts to form categories decreased with age: 14-month-olds always formed categories on the basis of parts, 18-month-olds sometimes formed categories on the basis of parts and sometimes on the basis of taxonomic structures, whereas 24-month-olds always formed categories on the basis of taxonomic kind (bodies). We examined the extent to which 18-month-olds would adapt their categorization of normal and hybrid stimuli as a function of context.

Fifty-two infants were tested using sequential touching on a set of 8 toys that could be partitioned as containing (1) the global level of animal, (2) the basic level of car, (3) objects having wheels, (4) objects having legs, (5) hybrid objects, or (6) as normal objects. Infants were randomly assigned to one of two prior context conditions in which they were shown some human dolls and trucks. In the Partonomic condition, the experimenter began by pointing out parts of the toys to the infants by bending the dolls at the waist and legs or by turning the trucks upside down and spinning their wheels. In the Taxonomic condition, the experimenter introduced the toys by “walking” the dolls (without bending the dolls at the waist or their legs) or by “driving” the trucks along the table.

Touch patterns were analyzed by fitting a finite mixture model to the data (Thomas and Dahlin; 2001). Many individual infants were found to categories in multiple ways. We then tabulated the number of infants that could be described as categorizing by parts, by taxonomic category, or by both. In the Taxonomic condition 22 categorized taxonomically, 2 categorized by parts, and 1 categorized both. In the Partonomic condition, 2 categorized taxonomically, 10 categorized by parts, and 0 categorized both. Categorization strategy was contingent on the familiarization context (Chi-squared (2) = 21.0, p<. 0001). The distribution of categorizers in the Partonomic context differed from chance, Chi-squared (2) = 14.0, p<. 001), with most of these infants forming categories on the basis of parts. The distribution of categorizers in the Taxonomic condition also differed from chance (Chi-squared (2) = 29.4, p<. 0001), with most of these infants forming categories on the basis of taxonomic information.

2006 - American Studies Association Words: 425 words || 
4. McClanahan, Annie. "“He who dies with the most toys is still dead.”: 9/11, speculation, and actuarial time" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The months following the attacks of September 11th, 2001 were characterized predominantly by a persistent attempt to maintain an atmosphere of national unity and good feeling. It thus is useful to consider the two most public “non-political” controversies that have arisen with regard to 9/11: the question of how to appropriately commemorate the deaths at the WTC, hashed out mostly in the court of public opinion, and the various legal controversies around insurance claims and payments. The first of these public debates has already been the subject of important intellectual consideration; the second, however, has been of interest mostly to industry analysts and economists. I want to suggest that there is a crucial link between the question of how to publicly remember national tragedy and the anxious attempt to rationalize the sentimental that is inherent to discourse on insurance. On the one hand, life insurance is a rationalization of affect, yet on the other hand, insurance has retained its mystery—and its value—precisely due to its investment in the incalculable: “It is almost as impenetrable as love,” as one 1935 writer on actuarial accounting put it.
Both commemoration and insurance capitalize on sentiment in the name of future security and stability. Memorialization requires that we remember past tragedy while continuing to move toward the future; the discourse of insurance—in its reliance on what I call “actuarial time”—is similarly vexed by the contradiction between the futurity of speculation or prediction and the trauma of (predicted but certain) death. Ultimately, it is through linking insurance to risk that we can see the link between speculative economic forms and the actions of the state or military industrial complex. Risk is both a necessary moment in and that which always threatens to undo the speculative: as the insurance industry faced the catastrophic fallout of 9/11, they were forced to make radical changes to underwriting and loss prevention principles. To save the industry, the government took over some of the burden (by passing the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act) and the industry, in turn, took over what might have in an earlier age been the governmental responsibility for ensuring global accountability.
This paper reads the legal battle surrounding 9/11 insurance claims alongside the debate about how to memorialize the dead to suggest that whether we are thinking through the relationship between insurance, security, and catastrophe, or considering how to mourn the deaths of thousands in and around the signal symbol of global finance capital, we are engaging the ineluctable relationship between risk and death, between speculation and oblivion.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Words: 175 words || 
5. West, Isaac. "Toying with Tropes of Tolerance: Allegories, Acceptance, and Queerness in Lars and the Real Girl" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: While there are a number of representations of LGBT relationships and sexualities available for consumption, maybe too easily digestible to produce more productive understandings of non-normative sexualities, it would be difficult to identify more than a couple of them as queer sexual relationships. If we accept this as one marker of the current limits of liberal tolerance, then narratives that move beyond these confining boundaries offer potentially rich sites of intervention. We find such a narrative in a surprising place. In Lars and the Real Girl, an independent film about a man who falls in love with a life-size female sex doll, we might expect a comedy built around a cheap trick. Instead, we find an allegory about the acceptance, rather than toleration, of queerness that offers us a glimpse into what that world-making attitude would look like. By taking queerness outside of the familiar gay-straight divide, Lars initiates a more complex discussion about the publicity and regulation of sexuality and the possibilities of queerness as an acceptable, as opposed to tolerated, means of relationality.

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