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2015 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 150 words || 
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1. Bogdan, Ludmila. "Do National and International Organizations of counter-trafficking meet needs of victims of human trafficking of non-traditional sexual orientation?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 15, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p973797_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The literature on various aspects of human trafficking continues to increase; however, it lacks studies looking how national and international organizations meet needs of victims of human trafficking of non-traditional sexual orientation. This research paper attempts to fill this gap by looking at the international legal and regulatory framework of the United Nations organizations, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the International Rescue Committee (IRC), LaStrada International Center (LaStrada), and Moldovan, Romanian, and Ukrainian national entities to identify which organizations do or do not include a special attention to sexual orientation. This report employs a cross-country study method based on quantitative and qualitative information that will be collected starting 2014. I hypothesize that most national and international organizations fail to offer the necessary assistance to victims of human trafficking who belong to sexual minority. This has major implications for the identification, assistance, and re-integration process of victims of human trafficking.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 133 words || 
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2. Cojocaru, Claudia. and Curtis, Ric. ""We Are Giving Voice to the Victims:" The Cultural Production of "Sex Trafficking Victim Stigma" in the Anti-Trafficking Movement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1278920_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Even though trafficking in the sex industry has consistently been considered a priority in policy concerns on law makers’ agenda, on both sides of the Atlantic, in the light of recent political changes the issue may take on new meanings. This paper examines the mainstream anti-trafficking movement’s discourse, particularly reflecting on the changes triggered by the post Trump and Brexit rhetoric. Through a comparative analysis of media content, and of images, as disseminated by news outlets and prominent anti-trafficking organizations and activists in the UK and the US, we seek to provide an alternative narrative to the dominant discourse regarding trafficking and prostitution. By employing the concept of “secondary exploitation", we aim to engage in critical reflection over the anti-trafficking movement’s awareness raising campaigns’ cultural production of objectifying and stigmatizing narratives and imagery.

2010 - The Law and Society Association Words: 359 words || 
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3. Brown, Geneva. "He Shall Go Free: Prosecution of Human Traffickers in the Sex Trade as Sex Offenders: The Need for a Trafficker Registry" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Chicago Hotel, Chicago, IL, May 27, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p418454_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Human sex trafficking is a moral and legal tragedy that effects thousands in the United States and abroad. The U.S. State Department estimates that human traffickers bring between 14,500 and 17,500 persons annually into the United States for various avenues of exploitation including involuntary servitude and forced prostitution. Human traffickers are highly organized into criminal syndicates that reap exponential profits exploiting vulnerable women and children. States struggle to prosecute traffickers and must rely on federal prosecution of trafficking enterprises. International cooperation with local law enforcement is essential in combating trafficking especially in the sex trade.
Thousands of women and children trafficked into the U.S. are forced into prostitution. Women and children experience modern day sex slavery. Women who are forced to work in the sex trade fare worse than other trafficking victims. Women working as prostitutes suffer from trauma, depression and anxiety. Children are an even greater vulnerable subpopulation. The United States in one the top three markets for human sex trafficking. A coordinated response from the international, federal and state law enforcement is needed. Human sex traffickers should be likened to sex offenders and have restricted civil liberties such as residence, travel and occupation. Traffickers who specialize in the exploitation of children should be treated as sex offenders since they procure youth for prostitution. Once a trafficker is prosecuted, an international database should be maintained to track the whereabouts of the trafficker as the U.S. has done with sex offenders. An international trafficking registry would have a deterrent effect. American sex offender laws seek to dramatically decrease recidivism of sex offenders. Studies show evidence of a notable decrease in sexual assaults reported and prosecuted. Likening sex offender laws to sex traffickers could have the same deterrent effect. As sex offender registries attempt to control sex offenders in society, a sex trafficking registry would curtail travel across international borders of sex traffickers. Limiting and monitoring the travel of convicted sex traffickers becomes a new avenue that international law enforcement and governing bodies can use to contain the pernicious practice of sex trafficking.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 74 words || 
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4. Kangaspunta, Kristiina. "Defeating Stereotypes in Human Trafficking: Women as Traffickers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p431836_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Stereotypically traffickers have often been seen as men and victims of trafficking as women. However, resent results of several studies show that an increasing number of women are involved in different stages of human
trafficking. This paper discusses the involvement of women in the trafficking process as recruiters, smugglers and exploiters. In addition, the paper looks into the power structures related to women traffickers particularly as members of organized crime groups dealing with human trafficking.

2011 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Words: 1 words || 
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5. Sa'ad, Abdul-Mumin. "International Crime of Child Trafficking in Nigeria: The Case of the North-East Transborder Child Trafficking" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p519076_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript

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