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2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 181 words || 
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1. Richardson, Nicholas. and Lattimore, Pamela. "The Association of Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Criminal Recidivism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1032055_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increase in general or violent criminal recidivism among a representative sample of released prisoners. Between April 2009 and April 2010 in-person interviews were conducted on a stratified random sample of individuals incarcerated with the South Carolina Department of Corrections. The prisoners were interviewed by trained field interviewers using computer assisted personal interviewing technology approximately 90 days prior to release. In addition to responding to items from various scales, the respondents were screened for TBI using a version of The Ohio State University TBI Identification Method and were asked whether they had received a current diagnosis of PTSD from a doctor or health care worker. The collected data were merged with arrest data obtained from the South Carolina State Law Enforcement Division. The arrest data provided both measures of past criminal involvement, as well as indicators of post-release recidivism as indicated by post-release arrest(s). Results indicate that TBI and PTSD are only associated with violent re-arrests, but not general re-arrests.

2007 - American Sociological Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 5237 words || 
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2. Marada, Radim. "Traumatic Memory in Generational Perspective: Memorizing Communism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, TBA, New York, New York City, Aug 11, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p185603_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The article attempts to contribute to the recent debate on cultural trauma by 1) adding the historically recent example of post-communist memorizing of communism to the cases of Holocaust and slavery, around which the debate has particularly evolved, and 2) focusing systematically on the generational aspect of the issue. It defends the analytical value of the concept of cultural trauma, both theoretically (in the first part of the article) and with the help of the noted empirical example (in the second part of the article). It shows how memories and past experience acquire a traumatic nature within the context of a generationally divided discourse of guilt. It especially accentuates two related features of traumatic memory/experience: ambivalence and silencing effect. And it illustrates these two aspects of trauma on the example of postcommunist memorizing of the communist experience. It also attempts to trace sociologically, rather than psychologically, the relevant intervening variables that limit the scope of historical imagination, hindering transferability of the past experience onto the younger generations – and thus contributing to the traumatic character of the contested memories.

2004 - International Studies Association Words: 405 words || 
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3. Rafman, Sandra. "Children’s Narratives of Traumatic Losses Due to Political Conflict or War:" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p74396_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Children’s Narratives of Traumatic Losses Due to Political Conflict or War:
The Role of Moral Disruption and Mourning.

In this paper we argue for the inclusion of a moral dimension in the study of loss and trauma in the context of children’s or their relevant community’s response to war. We argue that, in contexts of political violence, just when the child may be experiencing traumatic losses, so is his or relevant community, nation or culture. The (re)-construction of a life narrative is often prescribed as a therapeutic means of attenuating the impact of potentially traumatic events on an individual or community’s life. Increasingly the recreation of continuity following life-shattering events is seen as involving transformations rather than adaptations alone. However, following political violence, the losses and trauma associated with it, the child must re-create a narrative at the same time that his or her relevant culture(s) or nations(s) are struggling to do so and in the context of conflictual historical accounts, memories and narratives.
Disruptions experienced by children in contexts of critical social and political conflict and war include fragmentation and loss in the moral as well as the physical, relational and social order. This conceptualization, which may account for the potentially traumatic impact of these experiences, extends beyond the more narrow construct of posttraumatic stress. In this way, psychological and socio-moral approaches need not be seen as opposing positions.
Children’s play and verbal narratives are media par excellence to explore the fragmentation, integrations and transformations associated with disruptive events.We present research of our own as well as other studies that indicate that the loss of a rule-governed moral universe is reflected in the representations of the children who had encountered such contexts. Dilemmas related to good and evil, trust and betrayal, protection and aggression are prevalent in children’s representations yet death looms as the consequence of a wrong choice. Retaliation fantasies may be intense but attribution of blame uncertain. Ideological beliefs strongly affect response. Children’s ability (in parallel to their parent’s ability) to address these issues affected their clinical status. The difficulty in mourning the loss of a moral universe as well as a relational one contributes to traumatic grief. The recognition that a rule-governed moral universe has been disrupted or lost is critical in designing interventions for children who have experienced potentially traumatic life events. Such a conceptualization permits interventions to integrate the political, social and psychological dimensions.


2009 - SCRA Biennial Meeting Words: 233 words || 
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4. Thompson, Kip. and Kloos, Bret. "Class, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in Coping from Traumatic Stress as a Result of Hurricane Katrina" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SCRA Biennial Meeting, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, Jun 18, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p302441_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: It has been well documented that the survivors of Hurricane Katrina have endured an incredible amount of trauma. After natural disasters, perceptions of discrimination and low social support can sometimes exacerbate psychiatric distress (Weems, et al, 2007) among marginalized populations. The present study sought to understand how high scores on traumatic stress measures might predict scores of depression, anxiety, and PTSD, and how contextual factors and self-reported resilient behaviors might serve to moderate these relationships. Using the specific context of class, ethnicity, and gender to frame these questions, the researchers investigated unique experiences of traumatic stress and resilience among the diverse groups represented in the current sample. It was hypothesized that minority, female, and low SES status would contribute to higher vulnerabilities to health outcomes, and that contextual factors may influence how resilience was expressed. Participants included 208 individuals who had experienced Hurricane Katrina firsthand. Over 55% of this sample was African-American; most participants were also male. Data were collected in Columbia, SC, and in New Orleans, LA. Participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview and questionnaires measuring health outcomes, psychiatric distress, hope and social support. Using mixed methods with an intersectionality framework, the researchers gathered qualitative data to understand traumatic experiences and resilient behaviors. Results indicated high levels of psychosocial stressors were related to increased levels of health outcomes. In addition, results show varied responses in outcomes unique to ethnicity, gender, and class.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Words: 152 words || 
Info
5. Munksgaard, Jane. "Traumatic Images of Death: Suicide and The Golden Gate Bridge" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p424363_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The Golden Gate Bridge is a unique site of both death and serenity. Iconic representations of the bridge present it as melancholic, transient and beautiful, enveloped in San Francisco’s fog, stretching across vast expanses of space, however, its history as a frequent site of death makes it clear that it cannot serve as a purely contemplative space. By analyzing popular texts, and statements by social activists who have aggressively appealed to the public, demanding greater responsiveness and awareness about shocking images of jumpers falling to their deaths, this paper engages the melancholia versus mourning debates developed by scholars like Judith Butler and Barbara Biesecker. The Golden Gate Bridge controversy opens up space to think about the way that mourning (articulated in narratives from friends and family with members who died at the bridge) is interpenetrated by detached, touristic, and fetishized views of the bridge as a site of freedom.

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