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2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 149 words || 
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1. Ready, Justin., White, Michael., Kopp, Phillip. and DeCarlo, John. "Examining Officers’ Willingness to Use the TASER: A Comparison of Non-Users, Users, and High-Frequency Users across Ten Police Departments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p430054_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The research on police use of Conducted Energy Devices such as the TASER has been expanding as police departments increasingly adopt these weapons as a force option. To date, a number of studies have examined the circumstances in which TASERs are used, their effectiveness in the field, and their physiological effects. However, few studies have examined the departmental, ecological, and officer characteristics that increase or decrease officers’ willingness to use the device. This study addresses that gap in the literature by surveying 600 line officers across ten agencies that carry the TASER. Survey questions are used to assign propensity scores to individual officers, and then hierarchical models are used to predict frequency of use, as well as three distinct patterns of use: non-users, users, and high-frequency users. Finally, propensity scores are compared to actual use patterns. Research findings and policy implications are discussed.

2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 8508 words || 
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2. Massanari, Adrienne. "“Understand Users, Then Ignore Them”: The Construction of the “User” Within Web Design Texts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 20, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p295683_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper considers the problematic relationship between new media designers and “users” in texts written about user-centered design. Historically, users have been viewed as potential error-makers whose unpredictable behaviors cause problems for systems engineers. However, user-centered design approaches found within the fields of interaction design and information architecture place the user at the center of the technological system. To better understand and solidify the importance of the user within the technological artifact, these designers often create what are called “personas” – prototypical users with names, faces, interests, and preferences. Personas serve as boundary objects (Bowker & Star, 1999), used as conceptual stand-ins for users when making design decisions. Drawing on theoretical approaches from science and technology studies (STS) and cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), I examined current texts written about user-centered design, information architecture, and interaction design to understand the ways in which users are discursively “written into” the design process. My analysis suggests that personas serve as a kind of simulacra (Baudrillard, 1995), and their use is as much motivated by political realities within new media organizations, as it is by the need to incorporate user needs within the design process. In addition, I argue that personas serve to reinscribe the conceptual separation between the user and designer despite technological developments (like Web 2.0) that blur this boundary.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 6154 words || 
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3. Yee, Nick. "The Demographics and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively Multi-User Online Graphical Environments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p13958_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Online survey data were collected from 30,000 users of Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) over a 3 year period to examine users’ demographics and derived experiences. This paper provides more rigorous empirical support for theoretical propositions detailed in an earlier paper based on qualitative data (Yee, 2004). The findings show that not only do MMORPGs appeal to a wide age range (Mage= 26.57, range = 11-68), but also that the appeal is strong (on average 22 hours of usage per week). Also, survey data indicated that users derive meaningful relationships and salient emotional experiences from these virtual environments.

2005 - American Society of Criminology Words: 151 words || 
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4. Smiley-McDonald, Hope., Oser, Carrie., Leukefeld, Carl. and Webster, J.. "Differences in crime, victimization, and substance use among criminally involved female OxyContin® users and non-users" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Royal York, Toronto, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p33384_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Kentucky has seen significant increases in OxyContin® misuse, and also ranks high in OxyContin®-related crime rates (Inciardi & Goode, 2003). Little is known about this emerging drug of abuse, including characteristics about those who misuse it. Given consistent associations in the literature between victimization, crime, and substance use among women, this study aimed to examine the extent to which female OxyContin® users differed from non-users in their participation in these three risk behaviors. As part of a NIDA-supported project examining brief HIV interventions among felony rural probationers, this study examined differences between 240 female probationers from rural Appalachia who used OxyContin® (n=108) and those who did not (n=132). Odds ratios indicate that OxyContin® users reported significantly more criminality and greater victimization. They also reported significantly more days of use for marijuana, cocaine, non-prescribed stimulants and opiates. Implications for research and treatment of rural female OxyContin® users are discussed.

2010 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8733 words || 
Info
5. Langlois, Ganaele. "Towards a New Critique of Online Participatory Culture: User-Generated Content and the Assembling of Software and Users" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, Jun 22, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p404577_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Online participatory culture equates access to the means of communication with renewal of democratic participation, thus offering a compelling answer to concerns about control over the media. Yet, efforts to understand the power dynamics that shape cultural practices of communication online should not be abandoned. The new context of online user-generated communication requires tracing how online media systems set up the parameters of interaction and experience among users and between users and means of communication through networks of software systems, new types of communicative activities, social norms and cultural practices. This paper presents a cultural theory framework that includes Actor-network theory to trace the nascent power dynamics in the user-generated content context. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates how question of meaning needs to be integrated with that of media and software technologies in order to examine how user-generated content platforms set up the conditions for experiencing and sharing meaning online.

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