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2010 - International Communication Association Words: 148 words || 
1. Weber, Rene. and Bates, Cynthia. "Does Interactivity in Video Games Intensify or Attenuate Their Effects? Measuring Video Game Interactivity and Assessing Its Interaction With Video Game Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Research has found that exposure to video game violence significantly increases aggressive behaviors, cognitions, and affects. But exposure in games is a more complicated issue then in traditional mass media research because each video game player receives an individualized message as they interact with the game. Some theoretical work suggests that interactive qualities of the experience intensify the negative effects of playing violent games. Unfortunately, studying interactivity in experiments and content analyses is problematic because of content-related confounds, and to our knowledge no reliable and valid measure of video game interactivity exists. To address this issue, two studies are being conducted: 1) a survey to create a valid and reliable video game interactivity scale, and 2) an experiment to test the interaction effects between levels of interactivity and violent content. Preliminary results suggest that high interactivity and high violence interact to intensify effects on aggressive cognitions and emotions.

2010 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 5527 words || 
2. Ji, Sung Wook. "Is the Internet a Foe or Friend of Video Rentals? The Effect of the Internet on the Expenditures of Video Rentals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, Jun 21, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The effect of the Internet on consumers’ expenditures for video rentals consists of the balance of a negative effect due to substitution for existing demand and a positive effect due to the diffusion of information (e.g., advertising effects). In this paper, I estimate the overall effect of the Internet on expenditures for video rentals using ordinary least square, two-stage least squares, and fixed-effects analyses of data on video rental expenditures in whole U.S. area from 2006 to 2008. The results show that the 1 % increase of household Internet penetration leads to an increase in video rental expenditures by $0.68 from 2006 to 2008 implying the positive effect of Internet on the video rentals. However, potential substitutability between Internet and video rentals (i.e., the negative effect of Internet on the video rentals) were also found.

2011 - BEA Words: 129 words || 
3. Yang, Yan. "Online Video and Interactivity: An Examination of Consumers’ Use of Interactive Feature on Internet Video Websites" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BEA, Las Vegas Hilton, Las Vegas, NV, <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Paper/Presentation
Abstract: Besides watching videos, what else are people doing on Internet video websites? Consumers can now make use of the interactive features to leave comments, forward the link, upload or download video, and connect to social networking sites. This study frames watching online video as one example of interactive activities users can enjoy on the web. This survey investigates the predictors of people's usage of interactive features on Internet video websites based on a model developed from the Diffusion of Innovation theory and Participation Divide literature. It finds that demographics, experiential variables and technological characteristics are all important indicators of consumers' adoption of interactive features. Advertisers, marketers and website developers can use the findings of this study to create more effective advertising campaigns and appeal to more specific target audiences.

2016 - SRCD Special Topic Meeting: Technology and Media in Children's Development Words: 394 words || 
4. McClure, Elisabeth., Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia., Barr, Rachel., Holochwost, Steven. and Parrott, W. Gerrod. "Infant Emotional Engagement in Face-to-Face, Video, and Video Chat Interactions with their Mothers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Special Topic Meeting: Technology and Media in Children's Development, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, Oct 27, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many families today use video chat to help their babies develop or maintain relationships with remote family members, and recent evidence suggests that they are able to use it fairly successfully at home; however, there is very little existing research that systematically compares infant emotional responses during social interactions that take place face-to-face, via a non-contingent video, and via video chat.

Families with a child between the ages of 6 and 12 months were recruited from the D.C.-metro area, and 49 mother-infant dyads participated. Babies and mothers were randomly assigned to play peek-a-boo with one another either face-to-face, via video chat, or via non-contingent video. Babies’ behavioral and physiological responses were recorded.

Results indicate that while babies smile as often, pay the same amount of attention, and have the same levels of physiological reactivity across conditions, they take marginally longer to smile when interacting via video chat than face-to-face, F (2,43) = 3.10, p = 0.06, η2 = 0.13.

Furthermore, a hierarchical regression, F (3,42) = 4.94, p = 0.01, R2 of 0.21, revealed that the degree of sensitivity in the mothers’ behavioral style during the interactions plays a greater role in eliciting positive responses from babies than the medium by which they interact, such that each additional point of rated sensitivity predicted an additional two smiles from the baby during the interaction period. The regression failed to reveal a relationship between smile frequency and experimental condition.

Finally, a hierarchical regression, F (3, 42) = 3.19, p = 0.03, R2 = 0.19, revealed that mothers in the video chat condition took longer to begin playing peek-a-boo when they saw their babies, a behavior that was associated with increased infant smiles (each additional second that it took mothers to begin playing peek-a-boo predicted about 1 additional smile from babies on average). When this behavior was held constant statistically, a difference in smiling across conditions appeared such that video chatting babies smiled less often than their counterparts who played peek-a-boo face-to-face (p < 0.01) or via non-contingent video (p = 0.01).

The findings suggest that the sensitive behavioral styles that mothers use to interact with their babies in-person can also be used for successful video chat interactions. Furthermore, mothers may be able to compensate for babies’ less positive responses to video chat by taking time to engage with them at the start of a call, prior to initiating formal play activities.

2017 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: 6067 words || 
5. Nan, Yuanfeixue. and Qin, Jiaqi. "Frame, Tone of Video, Message Source, MSV and Viewers’ Responses: A Content Analysis of Genetically Modified Organisms Videos on Youku" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, Aug 09, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study explored the connection between the viewers' responses and the message characteristics of GMO videos on Youku, which is one of the most popular online video platforms in China. The major findings are as followed. Among all the samples, health implications frame, policy and regulation frame and social facts frame were the top 3 prevalent frames used in GMO videos. Neutral videos generated the most viewers while the positive videos generated the smallest. Also, the media source was the most frequently used message source in GMO videos. Lastly, the tests showed that videos’ characteristics (media frame, tone of video, message source and MSV) had a significant association with the number of views and comments, but had no noteworthy relevance with the viewers’ attitude toward GMO.

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