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2010 - International Communication Association Words: 148 words || 
1. Weber, Rene. and Bates, Cynthia. "Does Interactivity in Video Games Intensify or Attenuate Their Effects? Measuring Video Game Interactivity and Assessing Its Interaction With Video Game Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Research has found that exposure to video game violence significantly increases aggressive behaviors, cognitions, and affects. But exposure in games is a more complicated issue then in traditional mass media research because each video game player receives an individualized message as they interact with the game. Some theoretical work suggests that interactive qualities of the experience intensify the negative effects of playing violent games. Unfortunately, studying interactivity in experiments and content analyses is problematic because of content-related confounds, and to our knowledge no reliable and valid measure of video game interactivity exists. To address this issue, two studies are being conducted: 1) a survey to create a valid and reliable video game interactivity scale, and 2) an experiment to test the interaction effects between levels of interactivity and violent content. Preliminary results suggest that high interactivity and high violence interact to intensify effects on aggressive cognitions and emotions.

2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
2. Bowman, Nicholas., Wasserman, Joe. and Banks, Jaime. "The Video Game Demand Scale: Developing a Metric to Assess the Cognitive, Emotional, Physical, and Social Demands of Video Game Play" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, May 25, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: RESEARCH PAPER: One of the features that makes video games unique from other media in that they are interactive – they require action by the player in order to produce and advance the on-screen content. Scholars have focused on interactivity as a core variable in understanding a variety of uses, experiences, and effects of gaming, however conceptualizations vary and are often non-specific. The current paper proposes a multidimensional construct of interactivity based on the notion of demand (the extent to which a video game implicitly invokes or explicitly requires a player to respond), specifying potential cognitive, emotional, social, and physical demands common to video games. A Video Game Demand Scale is proposed and confirmed using a split-half method, demonstrating a robust, four-factor solution; validation of the subdimensions is achieved via predictive validity tests with measures of affect, arousal, entertainment outcomes, and need satisfaction metrics.

2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Schmitt, Josephine., Winkler, Julia., Lutz, Sarah., Dietrich, Felix. and Rieger, Diana. "Populist Voices in Extremist Online Videos: A Content Analysis of Right-Wing and Islamic Extremist YouTube Videos" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, May 22, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-15 <>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Populist and extremist actors gain popularity by promoting their ideas online. This extensive advertising strategy has led to an increase in votes for populist parties/politicians and in membership numbers for extremist groups. Although there are speculations in media reports that the simple worldview created by populists contributes to more extreme positions, no study tested whether extremists rely on populist communication in their communiqués. The current study therefore investigated whether populist communication styles are present in extremist propaganda. A quantitative content analysis on N=51 extremist YouTube videos (n=25 right-wing extremist,n=26 Islamist extremist) was conducted to analyze potential differences between ideologies. The results demonstrate that 30% of videos display all three elements of populism (people centrism, anti-elitism and restoration of sovereignty). However, multilevel analysis revealed only small differences between ideologies regarding the use of populist communication. The discussion will focus on implications of populist communication in extremist videos and potential prevention strategies.

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