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2011 - International Communication Association Words: 223 words || 
1. Griffin, Michael. "The Myth of Vietnam War Coverage and Its Influence on Post-Vietnam Photojournalism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: In the immediate post Vietnam War era, coverage of the war came to be associated with personal, independent and unfiltered reporting and image making, seen as a journalistic ideal by some, and an obstacle to successful government conduct of the war by others. This presentation considers the idealized ‘myth’ of Vietnam War photojournalism (still and motion picture) and how it has influenced perceptions and expectations of wartime media coverage since Vietnam. The idea that Vietnam was an ‘uncensored war’ and that the circulation of graphic images from the conflict effectively turned American public opinion against the US war effort, has long been repeated as conventional wisdom, despite the fact that scholarly and investigative analyses of media coverage of Vietnam have largely debunked this notion (Hallin 1986, Wyatt 1995, Knightly 2004). Some of the most often reproduced, and therefore most famous, images of the Vietnam War today were, in fact, not seen by most media viewers during the war itself. Yet, Vietnam has remained a mythical yardstick against which the coverage of subsequent wars has been measured, and a cautionary example of unrestrained wartime exposure against which governments and militaries now carefully guard (Griffin 2010). In the US and elsewhere this has led to many unsupported assumptions concerning war coverage and encouraged a consistent pattern of government/media collaboration in theaters of conflict (Griffin 2004).

2010 - International Communication Association Words: 192 words || 
2. Luu, Jodie. "Heartbeat Vietnam (Vi trai tim tre tho 2009): A Case Study of a ‘Paradigm Shift’ in Fundraising Activity in Vietnam via Social Media" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: In Vietnam there are thousands of young children suffering from heart diseases from birth, of which only a small number have a chance to receive proper medical treatments to survive. In hope to bring more operation opportunities to children from poor families, VinaCapital Foundation – a US-based nonprofit organization – collaborated with, one of the most popular local social networking sites, to launch the first large-scale online fundraising program ever in Vietnam titled Heartbeat Vietnam (Vi trai tim tre tho 2009) hosted by Against the backdrop of the communist / authoritarian regime, this online campaign emerges as an interesting case worth examining. This paper reviews the campaign to show how social media not only transform the fundraising experience in Vietnam, but also, to a larger extent, nurture the growth of civil society in a politically constrained situation. The intricate relationship between the state, market forces and civil society implied in the case study will also be discussed against the context of emerging use of social media in Vietnam.

For more details about the campaign in Vietnam, please visit

For more information about the initiative in English, please visit

2012 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 523 words || 
3. McCoy, Erin. "Yo Protesto:How Roy Brown’s Anti-Vietnam War and Pro-Puerto RicanIndependence Lyrics Reveal Puerto Rican Resistance to the Vietnam War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Puerto Rico Convention Center and the Caribe Hilton., San Juan, Puerto Rico, Nov 15, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The Vietnam War remains one of The United States’ most complex wars for contemporary cultural historians and historiographers; the Vietnam War revealed fissures within the United States’ previously established victorious and militaristic national identity and cultural mythology. The country historically lauded its national ideology in its war songs – “Yankee Doodle” (1755), “Patriotic Diggers” (1812), “Over There” (1917), and “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy” (1941) – but, ironically, the Vietnam War’s anti-war songs expressed a new national attitude and burgeoning cultural memory of the United States at war. A lively counterculture rallied against American ideologies argued in Walter Hixson’s theory in his 2008 book The Myth of American Diplomacy: National Identity and U.S. Foreign Policy. Hixson states that the “myth of American diplomacy” is an idea that hinges on the United States’ construction of itself as a harbinger of freedom. He precisely argues:
[…]national identity is both culturally constructed and hegemonic. Foreign policy flows from cultural hegemony affirming “America” as a manly, racially superior, and providentially destined “beacon of liberty,” a country which possesses a special right to exert power in the world. Hegemonic national identity drives a continuous militant foreign policy, including the regular resort to war” (Hixson 2008, 1-2).
The United States had long grounded its national image on a principle of being a “beacon of liberty” in the world, but now this image, attached in the annals of history to the ultimate “failure” of Vietnam showed noticeable tarnish as accusations of imperialism and war mongering grew in international dialogues.
To Puerto Rican audiences, the Vietnam War’s reinforcement of the U.S.’s imperialist tendencies was not an unfamiliar message. Puerto Rico had been swept up as a Spanish-American War “prize” through 1898’s Treaty of Paris, and discussion surrounding its independence yet to dissipate; the Caribbean country’s status as a U.S. territory has long been a topic of dispute. The concept of U.S. citizenry for Puerto Ricans, for example, resulted from a hastily and purposefully timed act – the 1917 Jones-Shafroth Act, to be precise – that allowed the United States to draft Puerto Ricans into World War I. Puerto Ricans have consistently served in every U.S. conflict and in its armed forces, and hundreds died in the Vietnam War, either killed in action or taken as prisoners of war.
Yet the Puerto Rican perspective on the Vietnam War is rarely present in past or current historians’ account of the war, least of all in American protest music. Roy Brown, a Puerto-Rican-American, however, represents an exception to that view. He recorded two Spanish-guitar-tinged folk albums (Yo Protesto, 1970 & Basta la Revolucion, 1972) that explicitly protested the Vietnam War and promoted Puerto Rico’s independence from the United States. This paper seeks to specifically explore Roy Brown’s lyrics from Yo Protesto and how their anti-imperialist, pro-Puerto Rican independence rhetoric has shaped the cultural memory of Puerto Rico’s role in the Vietnam War. Themes of resistance, “otherness,” politics of inclusion and exclusion, and cultural identity will be utilized in a close-reading of Brown’s lyrics against a historiographical background of Puerto Rico’s complicated and distant relationship with the militaristic ideologies of the United States.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 498 words || 
4. Park, Heejung., Lau, Anna., Ngo, Victoria. and weiss, bahr. "Manifestation of Family Obligation Values in the Lives of Vietnamese Adolescents in Rural Vietnam, Urban Vietnam, and Urban U.S." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: A sense of obligation to assist, support and respect the family is considered central to many non-Western cultures including Southeast Asia (Fuligni et al., 1999). Nevertheless, culture is not equivalent to country or ethnicity; it is a milieu in which information is learned and shared (Heine, 2012). We examined three distinctive learning ecologies for Vietnamese adolescents: rural Vietnam, urban Vietnam, and urban U.S. By holding constant ethnicity while comparing cultural group differences as defined by learning ecologies, we investigated the contextual influences on adolescents’ family obligation values. Specifically, we employed two pairs of group comparisons: 1) rural Vietnam vs. urban Vietnam to understand the role of urbanity in Vietnam, and 2) urban Vietnam vs. urban U.S. to explore the development of immigrant children in comparison to those in the home country, holding constant urbanity. Available resources and demands in urban Vietnam likely differ from rural Vietnam, as well as urban immigrant communities in the U.S., placing different weights on family obligation values. Furthermore, we examined how adolescents’ family obligation values translate into their daily time use and parent-child relationship, and whether the link varies as a function of the learning ecology.

Our sample was 872 Vietnamese adolescents from rural Vietnam (n=256, 55% female, Mage=15.76 years), urban Vietnam (n=316, 50% female, Mage=15.74 years), and urban U.S. (n=300, 58% female, Mage=15.55 years), recruited in nine high schools. Adolescents completed an online survey at school. To ensure compatibility across three regions, researchers in Vietnam and the U.S. underwent extensive discussion and piloting.

Compared to rural Vietnam, adolescents in urban Vietnam reported higher parental education level, lower number of siblings, and less financial hardship, in line with the notion that urbanization relates to greater opportunities for education and commerce (Greenfield, 2009). Despite more resources, however, family obligation value was higher in urban Vietnam than rural Vietnam. The traditional value appears to remain intact in contemporary Vietnam undergoing economic and educational development. Yet, our moderation analyses revealed that the definition of family obligation in adolescents’ daily lives might be changing. In urban Vietnam, high family obligation was uniquely associated with more time studying, a non-existent link in rural Vietnam where adolescents spent more time on chores than study.

When comparing Vietnamese adolescent in urban Vietnam with those in urban U.S. immigrant households, Vietnamese American adolescents had lower parental education level, more siblings, and greater financial hardship, highlighting socioeconomic challenges in immigrant families. Moreover, Vietnamese American adolescents reported significantly greater amount of conflicts with parents across all domains explored in the study: overt conflict, parental unresponsiveness, unmet parental expectations, and cultural value differences. Furthermore, parent-child conflict was moderated by family obligation values, such that Vietnamese American adolescents reported less frequent conflicts with parents when they had high family obligation values. The buffering role of family obligation value was found only in the Vietnamese American sample, suggesting the unique role of the traditional value system in alleviating conflicts with parents–which may stem from cultural value differences or communication barriers due to dissonant language–in immigrant households.

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 61 pages || Words: 18202 words || 
5. Burris, Val. "From Vietnam to Iraq: Continuity and Change in Public Attitudes to War in the Post-Vietnam Era" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines between-group differences in support for military action in the period since the Vietnam War. During the Vietnam War, support for military action was stronger among men, whites, the more educated, the more affluent, and younger persons. In the post-Vietnam era, men have remained consistently more supportive of military action, despite recent changes in gender roles and gender politics. Racial differences have remained strong, but not uniformly so. The gap between whites and nonwhites has been most pronounced in periods of intense partisanship or when military events have sparked a “rally-‘round-the-flag” response that affected whites more than nonwhites. Education and income differences have followed a similar pattern, although there are signs of a weakening of socioeconomic differences in attitudes to war, especially on the education variable. The sharpest change in the post-Vietnam era has been the relative decline in support for military action among younger persons. These data are used to explore the underlying causes and meanings of pro- and antiwar attitudes and to speculate on the prospects and likely contours of public opposition to the war on Iraq.

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