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2012 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 523 words || 
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1. McCoy, Erin. "Yo Protesto:How Roy Brown’s Anti-Vietnam War and Pro-Puerto RicanIndependence Lyrics Reveal Puerto Rican Resistance to the Vietnam War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Puerto Rico Convention Center and the Caribe Hilton., San Juan, Puerto Rico, Nov 15, 2012 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p562907_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The Vietnam War remains one of The United States’ most complex wars for contemporary cultural historians and historiographers; the Vietnam War revealed fissures within the United States’ previously established victorious and militaristic national identity and cultural mythology. The country historically lauded its national ideology in its war songs – “Yankee Doodle” (1755), “Patriotic Diggers” (1812), “Over There” (1917), and “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy” (1941) – but, ironically, the Vietnam War’s anti-war songs expressed a new national attitude and burgeoning cultural memory of the United States at war. A lively counterculture rallied against American ideologies argued in Walter Hixson’s theory in his 2008 book The Myth of American Diplomacy: National Identity and U.S. Foreign Policy. Hixson states that the “myth of American diplomacy” is an idea that hinges on the United States’ construction of itself as a harbinger of freedom. He precisely argues:
[…]national identity is both culturally constructed and hegemonic. Foreign policy flows from cultural hegemony affirming “America” as a manly, racially superior, and providentially destined “beacon of liberty,” a country which possesses a special right to exert power in the world. Hegemonic national identity drives a continuous militant foreign policy, including the regular resort to war” (Hixson 2008, 1-2).
The United States had long grounded its national image on a principle of being a “beacon of liberty” in the world, but now this image, attached in the annals of history to the ultimate “failure” of Vietnam showed noticeable tarnish as accusations of imperialism and war mongering grew in international dialogues.
To Puerto Rican audiences, the Vietnam War’s reinforcement of the U.S.’s imperialist tendencies was not an unfamiliar message. Puerto Rico had been swept up as a Spanish-American War “prize” through 1898’s Treaty of Paris, and discussion surrounding its independence yet to dissipate; the Caribbean country’s status as a U.S. territory has long been a topic of dispute. The concept of U.S. citizenry for Puerto Ricans, for example, resulted from a hastily and purposefully timed act – the 1917 Jones-Shafroth Act, to be precise – that allowed the United States to draft Puerto Ricans into World War I. Puerto Ricans have consistently served in every U.S. conflict and in its armed forces, and hundreds died in the Vietnam War, either killed in action or taken as prisoners of war.
Yet the Puerto Rican perspective on the Vietnam War is rarely present in past or current historians’ account of the war, least of all in American protest music. Roy Brown, a Puerto-Rican-American, however, represents an exception to that view. He recorded two Spanish-guitar-tinged folk albums (Yo Protesto, 1970 & Basta la Revolucion, 1972) that explicitly protested the Vietnam War and promoted Puerto Rico’s independence from the United States. This paper seeks to specifically explore Roy Brown’s lyrics from Yo Protesto and how their anti-imperialist, pro-Puerto Rican independence rhetoric has shaped the cultural memory of Puerto Rico’s role in the Vietnam War. Themes of resistance, “otherness,” politics of inclusion and exclusion, and cultural identity will be utilized in a close-reading of Brown’s lyrics against a historiographical background of Puerto Rico’s complicated and distant relationship with the militaristic ideologies of the United States.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 498 words || 
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2. Park, Heejung., Lau, Anna., Ngo, Victoria. and weiss, bahr. "Manifestation of Family Obligation Values in the Lives of Vietnamese Adolescents in Rural Vietnam, Urban Vietnam, and Urban U.S." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p963044_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: A sense of obligation to assist, support and respect the family is considered central to many non-Western cultures including Southeast Asia (Fuligni et al., 1999). Nevertheless, culture is not equivalent to country or ethnicity; it is a milieu in which information is learned and shared (Heine, 2012). We examined three distinctive learning ecologies for Vietnamese adolescents: rural Vietnam, urban Vietnam, and urban U.S. By holding constant ethnicity while comparing cultural group differences as defined by learning ecologies, we investigated the contextual influences on adolescents’ family obligation values. Specifically, we employed two pairs of group comparisons: 1) rural Vietnam vs. urban Vietnam to understand the role of urbanity in Vietnam, and 2) urban Vietnam vs. urban U.S. to explore the development of immigrant children in comparison to those in the home country, holding constant urbanity. Available resources and demands in urban Vietnam likely differ from rural Vietnam, as well as urban immigrant communities in the U.S., placing different weights on family obligation values. Furthermore, we examined how adolescents’ family obligation values translate into their daily time use and parent-child relationship, and whether the link varies as a function of the learning ecology.

Our sample was 872 Vietnamese adolescents from rural Vietnam (n=256, 55% female, Mage=15.76 years), urban Vietnam (n=316, 50% female, Mage=15.74 years), and urban U.S. (n=300, 58% female, Mage=15.55 years), recruited in nine high schools. Adolescents completed an online survey at school. To ensure compatibility across three regions, researchers in Vietnam and the U.S. underwent extensive discussion and piloting.

Compared to rural Vietnam, adolescents in urban Vietnam reported higher parental education level, lower number of siblings, and less financial hardship, in line with the notion that urbanization relates to greater opportunities for education and commerce (Greenfield, 2009). Despite more resources, however, family obligation value was higher in urban Vietnam than rural Vietnam. The traditional value appears to remain intact in contemporary Vietnam undergoing economic and educational development. Yet, our moderation analyses revealed that the definition of family obligation in adolescents’ daily lives might be changing. In urban Vietnam, high family obligation was uniquely associated with more time studying, a non-existent link in rural Vietnam where adolescents spent more time on chores than study.

When comparing Vietnamese adolescent in urban Vietnam with those in urban U.S. immigrant households, Vietnamese American adolescents had lower parental education level, more siblings, and greater financial hardship, highlighting socioeconomic challenges in immigrant families. Moreover, Vietnamese American adolescents reported significantly greater amount of conflicts with parents across all domains explored in the study: overt conflict, parental unresponsiveness, unmet parental expectations, and cultural value differences. Furthermore, parent-child conflict was moderated by family obligation values, such that Vietnamese American adolescents reported less frequent conflicts with parents when they had high family obligation values. The buffering role of family obligation value was found only in the Vietnamese American sample, suggesting the unique role of the traditional value system in alleviating conflicts with parents–which may stem from cultural value differences or communication barriers due to dissonant language–in immigrant households.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 51 pages || Words: 12332 words || 
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3. Dyson, Stephen. "The U.S. / U.K. Alliance in Vietnam and Iraq: Why did Britain Stay out of Vietnam and go into Iraq?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p100338_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: What accounts for the different outcomes in British decisions in Vietnam (not commit forces), and Iraq (commit forces), despite the similarities in the situations? In both Vietnam and Iraq a U.S. President pressed a Labour Party Prime Minister to commit forces to a war that was unpopular in the U.K. Yet, while Harold Wilson resisted repeated attempts by Lyndon Johnson to secure a commitment of troops, Tony Blair went out of his way to support George W. Bush, despite the domestic political cost. In seeking to account for these differing outcomes, I consider four explanatory variables: structural realism, alliance dynamics, domestic politics, individual characteristics of the Prime Minister.Method: Structured, focused case comparison methodology is used to compare the two episodes in a systematic fashion. These cases are in many ways an ideal pairing given the similarities between the situations yet the divergent outcomes. In order to measure the individual characteristics of the Prime Minister, I employ automated content analysis techniques that process an individual?s verbal output to reveal personality traits.Results: Structural realism fails to account for the difference in outcome between the two cases, as both responses (commit troops, don?t commit troops) can be deduced from a structural perspective. Alliance dynamics explanations are also unsatisfactory. Harold Wilson?s behaviour is contrary to what we would expect from a junior partner, and, while Blair?s choice is more consistent with this approach, the evidence shows that Blair reached the decision on grounds other than a pure calculation of alliance maintenance necessity. Domestic politics, on the other hand, is part of the explanation for the difference in outcome. Wilson was in a much more precarious position than Blair, and hence had to give more attention to the left-wing, anti-war part of the Labour Party than did Blair. However, this is not the whole story, and I find that a convincing account of the different outcomes in these cases requires a consideration of the differences between the Prime Ministers. Blair was a much more ?black and white? thinker than Harold Wilson, making Blair more amenable to the ?good and evil? framing of the situation by the U.S. than the less Manichean Wilson. In addition, Blair had fashioned a closed advisory system which insulated him from the opposition of most of the foreign policy bureaucracy to the war, whereas the Wilson administration operated through more open procedures. Consequently, my conclusion is that a combination of domestic politics and leadership style best accounts for the difference in outcomes in British decision making on Vietnam and Iraq. The paper will be of interest to those working in foreign policy analysis and decision making, the U.S. - U.K. relationship, and alliance dynamics generally.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Pages: 26 pages || Words: 7968 words || 
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4. Pham, Minh. "In the Crossfire: Vietnam’s Relations with China and the Soviet Union during the Vietnam War (1965-1972)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p311982_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper discusses the Vietnamese government’s and the Vietnam Workers Party’s difficulties in dealing with two “big brothers” — the Soviet Union and China — during 1965-1972, as the conflict between them deepened and the Vietnam War escalated and expan

2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Words: 26 words || 
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5. Nguyen Viet, Anh Tuan. and Imai, Masami. "The Effects of Ethnic Chinese Minority on Vietnam’s Regional Economic Development in the Post-Vietnam War Period" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1351834_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines the economic roles of the ethnic Chinese in Vietnam. The results suggest that the they had positive economic impacts on Vietnam’s regional economies.

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