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2015 - Eleventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 151 words || 
1. Türkyılmaz, Fatma. "Do Visual Reading and Visual Presentation Acquisitions of Turkish Teaching Syllabus Reach the Students to Visual Literacy?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eleventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 20, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of visual literacy gains in the field of visual literacy and presentation as present in Primary School Turkish Course (1.-5. Classes) Educational Program and Guide at development of reading comprehension skills depend on evaluations of teacher feedbacks. Visual literacy is a process that consisting of comprehension (reading) and telling (writing) skills. Therefore we can say that “Visual literacy is a notion and also an educational movement”. Several studies indicated that, the teaching conducted with visual elements makes the education process better quality, enhances the permanence of learning. The implementation of visual reading and visual presentation domain in quality and diversity depends on teachers’ initiative. This research will be conducted with a total of 15 teachers; 8 teachers working in state schools located in Altındağ district of Ankara province, seven class teachers working in private schools located in various districts of Ankara.

2014 - International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference Words: 395 words || 
2. Geise, Stephanie., Lobinger, Katharina. and Brantner, Cornelia. "Visual Framing Research «beyond» Visual Studies? Current State and Future Prospects of Approaches Analyzing Visual Frames in Multimodal Contexts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference, Seattle Sheraton Hotel, Seattle, Washington, <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Based on a systematic, meta-analytical examination of journal articles on visual framing, we present an overview of the current state of research focusing on methodological and theoretical visual-framing approaches. The analysis shows that visual framing is a progressing and prospering field of visual research. Nonetheless, a deeper look on the theoretical foundations and methodological conceptions poses important challenges that we will address in our presentation illustrating our statements by example of realized research settings.

Against the background of our findings, we argue for a further development of visual-framing research in itself seeing a necessity for an advanced differentiation of the theoretical conceptualizations in distinguishing visual framing from related attribution effects that also aim at the reciprocal relation between cognitive structures and their effects on the perception, processing and interpretation (e.g. visual stereotypes, schemata). Furthermore, with visual frames being multidimensional constructs, we argue for a differentiation of distinct types and levels of visual frames. As our findings indicate, a shortcoming also lies in the current consideration of multimodality. Here, we suggest systematic analyses of visual and textual framing and their interactions – like concurrency, interdependence, or amplifying. As existing theoretical conceptualizations of visual framing neglect the moderating factors from a recipient's perspective, we argue that factors such as personal relevance, interest, involvement, prior knowledge, experience, or (visual) socialization might better explain inter-individual differences in visual-framing effects.

Regarding the methodological perspective, our meta-analysis shows that the measurement of visual-framing effects also exhibits inadequacies, particularly regarding its strong focus on post-receptive one-time measurements neglecting the process-related character of framing. We explore why visual-framing effects on perception and evaluation need to be measured during the process by using reception-based methods (e.g. eye-tracking, thinking-aloud-methods). Moreover, we are able to show that existing studies omit cumulative effects. In this regard we discuss why the addressing of a long-term perspective on visual framing seems to be necessary as multiple stimulus exhibition may not only activate certain cognitive patterns, but also change them into the direction of the presented frame, influence attitudes and opinions, or establish new cognitive patterns. Finally, we argue for a progress of visual-framing research beyond visual studies in which the bridging nature of framing broadens the perspective and opens new lines towards research focusing on multi-modal messages and intersemiotic interactions of visual, verbal and/or auditive framing devices and give an outlook how future visual-framing research could address these challenges.

2011 - International Communication Association Words: 270 words || 
3. Mueller, Marion. "“Classifying” War Visuals: A Typology of Visual News About Armed Conflict" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: This paper is presenting research from an ongoing project on “Visual – Film – Discourse”, funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). In the paper first the “functionality” of visual news reports about war and armed conflict are scrutinized, shedding light on both the documentary function, the information function, the evidential function, but also the function for collective memory and potential traumatizing effects of these images that, oftentimes, also depict almost unimaginable atrocities. In a second step, and recurring to a previous typology of atrocity images (Müller 2005), the results of a qualitative, long-term study of visual patterns and motifs of press reporting – mainly print press, but also online press photography – will be presented, concluding with the presentation of a tentative iconological typology of war visuals which will then be related to the previously discussed functions of war visuals. By documenting, “classifying” and evaluating war visuals the big picture will reveal particular patterns and compositional properties linked to specific functionalities of the images propagating or documenting war in the 21st century. On a second level, the title plays with the dual meaning of the word “to classify/classified”, meaning (a) to attribute visuals to a certain set of meta-data categories and thus using classification criteria to describe and annotate the visuals, but also (b) to deny public access to certain types of visuals which are considered to threaten security interests, or which are not publicly shown due to ethical and psychological considerations related to potentially traumatizing effects of those visuals, and argument which is linked to Sontag’s argument in “Regarding the Pain of Others”.

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