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2011 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 240 words || 
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1. Mann, Christopher. "Get the Vote in the Mail: Experiments in Getting Out the Vote Using No Excuse Absentee Voting" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel InterContinental, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 05, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p455597_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In a series of field experiments on mobilization through recruitment to vote by mail, I demonstrate that turnout can be significantly increased and that this mobilization strategy is more cost effective than canvassing or live phone calls. These field experiments were conducted in partnership with four different civic organizations. More than 1.5 million voters were treated in 14 states in the 2006, 2008, and 2009 general elections. The increase in voter turnout from vote by mail recruitment is largely consistent across all of these settings. Although the electoral reform literature has found little effect on turnout from changing election law to allow voting by mail, it does create a new opportunity for mobilization. Recruitment treatments educate voters about voting by mail and provide an application. Then the lower cost of voting at home increases the likelihood of voting. Since the voter mobilization literature has paid almost no attention to voting by mail, these experiments are an important contribution to understanding the way increasing numbers of Americans vote. Voters in 29 states can vote by mail without an excuse, and the number of voters doing so increases each year. In 2008, 8 states ranging from coast to coast had at least 1/5th of their ballots cast by mail, including Oregon (100%), Washington (89%), Colorado (64%), California (43%), and Florida (21%) (McDonald 2008). Therefore, these field experiments address an important gap in knowledge about electoral participation in contemporary elections.

2017 - 88th Annual SPSA Conference Words: 174 words || 
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2. van der Waal, Jeroen., achterberg, peter., Houtman, Dick. and de Koster, Willem. "Stratification and Vote Choice in the United States: Economic Voting and Status Voting during the Presidential Election of 2012" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 88th Annual SPSA Conference, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, Jan 11, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1201897_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: By applying a mechanism-based approach to the debate on stratification and vote choice, this study uncovers two cross-pressuring mechanisms that are disregarded in the variable-based approach that dominates the field: economic voting and status voting. Using survey data collected in the United States (N = 2,006), we show that both types of voting behavior were simultaneously relevant in the presidential elections of 2012: the economically weak (strong) voted for the Democratic (Republican) candidate because of economic egalitarianism (laissez-faireism), while those with high (low) levels of cultural capital translated their cultural progressiveness (conservatism) into support for the Democratic (Republican) candidate. Whereas previous studies, which focused on the direct relationship between stratification and vote choice, often concluded that the electoral relevance of economic inequalities has waned, our mechanism-based approach instead demonstrates that economic voting is still highly salient in contemporary American politics, but operates in the shadow of even more salient status voting. We discuss the broader relevance of our findings, which inform various scholarly debates, including discussions on the culture wars and the ‘Kansas hypothesis’.

2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Words: 15 words || 
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3. Johnson, Gary. "Electoral Reforms in Utah: Early Voting, Same Day Voting, and Vote by Mail" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1343956_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This is a detailed and original dataset examining the effects of electoral reforms in Utah.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 9145 words || 
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4. Fernandes, Juliana. and Kaid, Lynda. "Today's Vote is Not Tomorrow's Vote: The Influence of Time Perspective on Vote Likelihood" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p488546_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of time perspective on vote likelihood for a political candidate. Time perspective refers to how variations in time frame such as a present frame (i.e., today) or a future frame (i.e., a year from now) influence voter choices and evaluations. Four experiments provide evidence that time perspective changes vote likelihood and explain how this process occurs. Study 1 shows that time perspective changed vote choice for a known candidate and that attitudes became more extreme (i.e., polarized) in the present and less extreme (i.e., moderated) in the future. Study 2 shows that time perspective affects vote choice for an unknown candidate and similar to Study 1, polarization and moderation effects were observed in the present and in the future, respectively. The hypothesis for this attitude change is based on the information that people use when making evaluations for the present and for the future. Study 3 shows implicit evidence that voters use different types of information in the present and in the future and Study 4 provides explicit evidence of how voters use information in the present and in the future.

2014 - International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 8859 words || 
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5. Kleinnijenhuis, Jan., van de Pol, Jasper., van Hoof, Anita. and Krouwel, Andre. "Electoral Volatility and Fragmentation: Effects of Vote Advice, Issue Voting, and News on the Vote" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference, Seattle Sheraton Hotel, Seattle, Washington, May 21, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p713818_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Vote Advice Applications (VAAs) such as the EUprofiler in the European elections are the most often used political websites during election campaigns, especially in multiparty systems. This article investigates whether the use of VAAs has an impact on the vote for different types of VAA-users that were identified in previous research: checkers, doubters and seekers. The study is based on two 3 wave panel surveys for the Dutch national election campaigns of 2010 and 2012, each with a pre-campaign wave to measure prior vote intention, a pre-election wave to measure VAA-use and advice obtained from VAAs, and a post-election wave to measure the actual vote. The research results show a huge impact of VAAs, who thereby contribute to electoral volatility and fragmentation, even when controlled for the prior vote, prior issue preferences, and horse race news. “Seekers” use VAAs most often, but the “doubters” are influenced most heavily by VAA-advice.

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